Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

A-P or a-p

antero-posterior, from front to back

abdomen

area of the body between chest and pelvis

abdominal

pertaining to the abdomen

abduct, abduction

movement of a body part away from the midline of the body

abducted gait

walking with the legs spread away from the midline

abductor

muscle that moves a body part away from the midline of the body

ability to walk

walking, mobility, quality of life factor

ablatio mammae

surgical removal of female breast

ablation

surgical removal

above elbow (AE) amputation

amputation through the humerus between the shoulder joint and the elbow joint

above elbow (AE) prosthesis

prosthesis for a person with a trans-humeral amputation

above the knee (AK) amputation

amputation through the femur (thigh bone) between the hip joint and the knee joint

above the knee (AK) prosthesis

prosthesis for transfemoral amputation - (AK)

abrasion

superficial rub or wearing off of the skin

abscess

localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by the disintegration oftissue

abutment

in osseointegration: the coupling projecting through the skin between the implant (fixture) and the external appliance

acceleration

rate of change of velocity with respect to time

acceleration phase

sub-phase in the swing phase of gait

ACE wrap, Ace bandage

stretchable, expandable bandage for joint support

acetabulum

concave pelvic component of the hip joint receiving the femoral head

acetone

liquid solvent

achilles tendon

tendon at distal end of calf muscles attached to the calcaneus

acrylic resin

thermo-setting resin on an acrylic base

actuator

device converting electric or hydromechanical energy to mechanical movement.

acute

rapid onset or short duration of a condition

adapter

device coupling two different ends

adduct; adduction

movement of a body part towards the midline of the body

adductor

muscle moving a body part towards the midline of the body

adductor roll

medial-proximally located roll oft soft tissue (TF-prosthetics)

adhesion

adhesion contact socket

contact socket, type of suction socket

adipose

containing fat cells

adjust

act of correcting something according to general standards or individual needs, also: re-align

ADL

Activities of Daily Living

admission

the act ofaccepting a person for treatment in a hospital or clinic

adolescent

person between the onset of puberty and maturity

adult

fully mature person

aerobic

any biological process that occurs in the presence ofoxygen

aetiology, etiology

origin or cause of a disease

AFO

orthosis that encompasses the ankle joint and whole or part of the foot

agenesis

absence or failure to develop of any part or organ

agonist

muscle opposed in action by another muscle called the antagonist

aid

means of support; O&P: a device of supporting function, as walking aid etc.

aids for daily living, ADL

aid for daily living

air splint

orthosis containing an air chamber(s)

AK-prosthesis

prosthesis for person with a trans-femoral amputation

AK-socket

socket of trans-femoral prosthesis

akinesia

loss of the ability to control motor muscles

alignment

establishment of the position in space of the components of a prosthesis or orthosis relative to one another and the user

alignment (of a joint)

spatial relationship between the segments that comprise the joint

alignment (of a skeletal segment)

spatial relationship between the ends of the segment

alignment (of the trunk or any part thereof)

spatial relationship between the relevant two vertebrae

alignment components (of prostheses)

components of prostheses that permit changes in the position of the components of the prosthesis relative to one another

allergy

over-reaction of the immune system against ?foreign? matter (allergen)

alloy

mixture of metals to obtain specific characteristics.

ALLURION? foot

low height energy storing/returning multi-flexible carbonfibre composite foot

aluminum, aluminium

low density metal

ambulate, ambulation

walk; bipedal movement from place to place

ambulation

the act of bipedal motion or moving/walking from place to place

ambulator

a frame to assist ambulation

amputation

surgical removal of an external body part

amputation level

the part of the body through which the amputation is performed such as trans-tibial, trans-metatarsal, trans-humeral.

amputee

individual who has had an amputation

amputee care

management of amputees by an interdisciplinary team

anaerobic

any biologic process that occurs in the absence of oxygen

analgesia

pain relief

analyse

to examine critically

analysis

the process of detailed research on components of a whole

anamnesis

medical case history of a patient

anastomosis

the surgical connection of two like tubular body tissues- can be nerves, blood vessels, or bowel

anatomical landmark

visible or palpable body structure used as a reference point

anatomical suspension

suspension obtained by anchoring the socket to the underlying anatomy

anatomy

science of structure of organisms

anesthesia

loss of feeling or sensation.

angiogenesis

growth and proliferation of blood vessels

angiography

imaging process that uses dye injected into blood vessels

angularity

the property of a shape with intersecting borders

angulus sub-publicus

angle of the pubic ramus, important in IC-sockets

ankle

joint between the distal ends of the tibia and fibula and the proximal end of the talus

ankle block

connector between prosthetic foot and shin

ankle joint

joint between the tibia, the fibula and the talus

ankle-brachial index (ABI)

ratio between ankle and arm systolic blood pressures

ankle-foot device

functional component of a prosthesis designed to substitute for some of the functions of the normal ankle and foot by means of controlled motions

ankle-foot orthosis (AFO)

orthosis that encompasses the ankle joint and whole or part of the foot

ankylosis

pathological fusion of a joint.

anoxia

reduction in the amount of oxygen carried to tissues per unit of time

antagonist

muscle opposed in action by another muscle called the agonist

anterior

front

antero-lateral

front and outer sides

antero-medial

front and inner sides

anteversion

forward tilt of a body part; opposite of retroversion.

anthropometry

measurement of the human body

anti?

against

antibiotic

medication for the treatment of microbial infection

anvil

block of iron, surface used in forging metal

apex

top or summit, the highest point, the peak

appliance (in O&P)

instrument designed for a particular (functional) purpose; O&P: orthotic device / prosthetic device = orthosis / prosthesis

application

making work or connecting to?

apprentice

student learning a profession or craft in a structured approach

apprenticeship (course)

training course for vocational education

appropriate

most suitable

appropriate technology

technology appropriate for a particular person, place or environment

arch

curvedbody structure (e.g.; arches of the foot)

arch support

a support for the arch of the foot

arteriography, arteriogram

angiographyof arteries

artery

blood vessel transportingblood from the heart

arthritis

acute or chronic joint inflammation

arthrodesis

permanent surgical immobilization of a joint

arthroplasty

surgical reconstruction of a joint

arthrosis

degenerative joint disease; synonym for osteoarthritis

articulating components(of orthoses)

functional components of orthoses that allow or control the motion of anatomical joints (joints for spinal orthoses, hip, knee,ankle, foot/toe, shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand/finger)

articulation

a joint

aseptic

not caused by bacterial infection

ASIS

anterior superior iliac spine

assessment

process of gathering information about thefunctioning of an individual

assistive products; assistive devices

products (including devices, equipment, instruments, technology, and software) that prevent, compensate, monitor, relieve, or neutralizing impairments, activity limitations, and/ or participation restrictions

atheromatosis

Deposits of cholesterol and other fats in the walls of medium and large arteries (also called atherosclerosis)

atherosclerosis

A hardening of the walls of the arteries caused by atheromatosis

athetosis

continuous involuntary movements of the limbs

athletic

highly physically active; participating in competitive sports

atrophy

shrinkage, wastage of biological tissue

augment

enlarge

autolysis

latin. auto=self, lysis=dissolution; self-dissoluting process of devitalised tissue; proteolytic enzymes and macrophage activity is thought to be responsible for autolysis.

autonomic nervous system

part of the nervous system, not under voluntary control

axial rotator

functional component of a prosthesis designed to allow transverse plane rotation

axilla, axillary

the armpit, relating to the axilla

B

back

the posterior aspect of the trunk, extending from the base of the neck to the buttocks

bacteria

type of infective microorganism

balance

a state of equilibrium

ball bearing

bearing box containing a ring of balls designed to minimize resistance to rotation

ball joint

joint that permits angular motion in all planes

band

1. tie 2. reinforcement structure

bandage, non-elastic

fabric wrapping used to support tissue

bandage, to

process of applying bandages, taping

bandaging technique (for stumps)

process of applying (compression) bandages to a recently amputated residual limb

bandagist

orthotist specialized in soft orthotics, mastectomy prostheses etc.

bar

structural component of an orthosis that connects the articulating and interface components and maintains the alignment

barrier

structure or object that impedes free movement

Barthel Index

measure based on 10 items specific to activities of daily living (ADL) and mobility

BE

below elbow

bearing

a part that supports and guides the movement of another part

bed exercises

early PT - treatment in bed after disease or surgical intervention

bed sore

ulcer caused by pressure/shear on skin over a bony prominence; pressure sore, decubitus ulcer

below elbow (BE) amputation

amputation below the elbow joint

below elbow (BE) prosthesis

prosthesis after amputation below the elbow joint

belt

suspension component of prostheses/orthoses, also light abdominal bandage

bench

workstation, worktable

bench alignment

alignment of prosthetic or orthotic components based on technical characteristics and patient data

bend, to

to shape in a curve or kink; providing a shape or contour to sidebars, bands etc.

bending iron

set of two contouring tools for metal bar bending

bending moment

product of a force and the perpendicular distance between the force and the point the bending moment refers to

benign

being of kind disposition. applies to nonmalignant tumours

bevel

chamfer an edge

biaxial joint

joint with two axes

big toe

great (first) toe; hallux

bilateral

relating to both sides

bilateral amputation

amputation of both lower limbs or both upper limbs at the same time

bilateral amputee

individual who has had an amputation of both lower or both upper limbs

bilateral prosthetic management

pediatric bilateral transfemoral prosthetic management

bioelectricity

electric phenomena in humans, animals or plants

bioengineering

application of engineering sciences in medicine and biology

biofeedback therapy

technique in which patients are trained to gainvoluntary control over certain physiological functions by providing sensory feedback

biological (physiological) age

assessment of a person's age

biology

science pertaining to living structures

biomechanics

application of mechanics in medicine and biology

bionic knee

motorized and computer-controlled, electromechanic, prosthetic knee joint

bionics

technology used to replace or augment a particular physiological functions by electronic or electromechanical human-like components. Such components may be programmed to be self-learning.

biscapular abduction

bringing both shoulders forward simultaneously (prosthetic control motion)

BK amputation

amputation of the lower limb between the knee joint and the ankle joint

BK prosthesis

prosthesis for person with a trans-tibial amputation

BK socket

socket for trans-tibial prosthesis

blister

fluid-filled space within the epidermis

blister (vacuum) forming

thermal molding of a plastic sheet, heldin a frame, by applying a vacuum

block heel

wide basis heels

blood clot

gelatinous mass of coagulated blood

blood flow

movement of blood within the vessels

body

the whole structure of an individual

body jacket

type of spinal orthoses

body powered

powered by the person using muscles (as opposed to outside energy)

body-image

self-perception of one's body

bolts

machine screw and similar

bonding agent

adhesive substance (e.g. glue, cement)

bone

type of tissue making up the skeleton

bone loss syndrome

reduction of bony mass

bone spur

protrusion of bone or fragment of bone

bonification

soft tissue gradually changing into bony tissue

bony bridge

spontaneous or surgical bone connection between bones (e.g. tibia and fibula)

bony landmark

visible or palpable bone structure giving reference points

bony lock (O&P)

m-l tight locking design in ischial containment sockets

bordering

providing a smooth trim line or brim

Boston Brace

type of spinal orthosis developed for adolescent scoliosis treatment

bouncy mechanism

part of a prosthetic knee unit that provides shock absorption by limited flexion

bowleg

deformity in which the normal femoro-tibial angle in the coronal plane (valgus) is reversed (varus)

brace

outdated term for orthosis

brain, cerebrum

part of the central nervous system enclosed in the cranium

braze

metal joining technique using a molten filler metal alloy having a melting temperature greater than about 425 ¯ C

brazing tool

tool for heat supported metal soldering

brim

proximal part of a socket or orthotic shell; casting tool / template

BRöCKNER amputation

short trans-tibial amputation for the dysvascular patient with resection of the fibula and resection of muscles except for the medial gastrocnemius. purpose: improvement of primary healing

brooch / hook

hooks holding a lace, closure of shoes etc.

buffing

creating a shiny surface finish

build-up (tech.)

location of added plaster in modifications of plaster casts

bulbous stump

stump with a distal circumference greater than more proximally

BURGESS amputation

trans-tibial amputation using a long posterior myocutaneous flap

burn

thermal injury

burn compression garment

compression garment (also used for burn-, keloid treatment)

bursa

sac or sac-like cavity containing viscous fluid

by-law

law, or internal regulation made by a local legal authority, a corporation or a professional association

bypass

surgical procedure, creating an alternative path using a vein or artificial graft for the flow of blood,designed to increase blood flow to an organ or extremity

C

c-clamp

clampingtool (woodwork)

CAD CAM

Computer Aided Design, Computer Aided Manufacture

CAD CAM mill

CNC (Computerized Numerically Controlled) milling machine for CAD-CAM applications

CAD CAM scanner mobile

optical laser scanner for mobile use

CAD CAM scanner static

optical laser scanner for stationary use

cadence

number of steps per unit of time

calcaneus

heel bone; os calcis

calcification, calcified

deposition of calcium salts in body tissues

calculation

process of determining something by mathematical or logical methods

calf

posterior fleshy aspect of the lower leg, including the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles

calf band

connection between side bars at level of the calf

calf corset

circumferential calf shell in an orthosis

caliper, calliper (O&P)

outdated term for a specific orthosis (externally applied device used to modify the structural and functional characteristics of the neuro muscular and skeletal systems)

caliper, calliper (tech.)

instrument for measuring the precise distance between two points

Canadian Hip Disarticulation Prosthesis

prosthesis for person with hip disarticulation

cancer

malignant and undifferentiated growth of cells

cancerogenous

causing cancer

cane

walking stick

cap band

finishing element of trim lines, brims of corsets

carbon fiber

high modulus, low weight fibre mainly made by carbonising polyacrylonitrile fibres at high temperature

carbon fibre foot

energy returning prosthetic foot

cardanic

two axes, aligned in 90 degrees toward each other

cardanic joint

mechanical jointed linkage between two shafts, permitting rotation combined with transfer of torque; simultaneously permitting flexing in two planes of the joint around their longitudinal axes

cardiac

pertaining to the heart (as: cardiac infarct?)

cardiac infarct

myocardial infarction: cardiac tissue that is dying due to lack of oxygen

cardiorespiratory function

pertaining to or affecting both the heart and the lungs and their function

cardiovascular

pertaining to the heart and blood vessels

care, the

attention and management implying responsibility for safety, as care of a sick person

care, to

to manage implying responsibility for safety, as caring for a sick person

carve

shaping by taking material off (chipping off, sanding off)

cast (negative, concave)

mold: container into which liquid is poured to create the given shape once it hardens; plaster cast

cast (positive, convex)

positive (plaster or similar) mold

cast modification

process of modifying the positive model obtained by filling a negative cast in order to obtain a shape that specifies the whole or part of the form of the final prosthesis or orthosis

cast removal

removal of plaster bandage from a poured plaster cast

cast taking

acquisition and recording of all information required to construct the prosthesis (orthosis) by taking negative casts of the body segments

caster

freely moving front wheels at a wheel chair

casting and measurement taking

acquisition and recording of all information required to construct the prosthesis (orthosis) by means that may include the preparation of diagrams, tracing, measurements and negative casts of the body segments

casting procedure

technique of getting 3-dimensional body impressions

caudal

direction, toward distal end of the vertebral column (tail)

cavovalgus foot deformity

foot deformity presenting with high medial arch combined with heel valgus

CDH

congenital dislocation of the hip

cell (anat. & tech.)

smallest living unit; elementary technical unit

cellular

made up from cells

cellulitis

diffuse subcutaneous inflammatory process

celluloid

one of the first plastic materials available

cement

liquid or gel-like material that acts as an adhesive agent after curing

center of gravity (COG)

the point in an object at which its weight is considered to act

center of mass (COM)

the point in an object at which its mass is considered to act

center punch

tool used to set a point-shaped mark in a piece of metal

centrode

graph for the path of the instantaneous centers of rotation

cerebral

pertaining to the cerebrum

cerebral palsy

motor nerve disorder caused by permanent brain defect present at birth or soon after

cerebral paresis

dysfunction of muscle tissue pertaining to cerebral trauma

cerebro vascular accident

blood clot or bleeding in the brain

cerebrum

the major part of the brain, occupying the upper part of the cranium

cervical

pertaining to the neck

cervical collar (cervical brace)

orthosis that encompasses the whole or part of the cervical region including the atlanto occipital joint

cervical orthosis

orthosis that encompasses the whole or part of the cervical region including the atlanto occipital joint

cervical spine

most proximal segments of the spinal column

CETERUS? foot

energy storing/returning multi-flexible carbonfibre composite foot with shock absorber and rotator

chairback brace

type of spinal orthosis designed to reduce lumbar lordosis

chamfer

to thin out the edges of a material

Charcot joint

almost painless joint and soft tissue destruction resulting from sensory neuropathy; most common in the foot and ankle (Charcot foot)

check or diagnostic socket

transparent or translucent socket for assessing fit

check-out

process of verifying that the finished condition of the prosthesis or orthosis ( including fit, function, and appearance) is satisfactory

chest

region of the trunk between the neck and the abdomen

chest expansion

volume increase of the chest caused by inhalation

chiropodist (Canada)

medical doctor specialized in foot care (Canada)

Chopart amputation

partial foot amputation at the mid tarsal (Chopart) joint line

Chopart joint

mid-tarsal joint line between talus and navicular, and calcaneus and cuboid.

chronic

long term (disease; opposite of acute)

chronological (age)

actual (calendar) age

circumduction of hip

Combined hip joint abduction and anterior pelvic rotation during swing phase

circumference

the measurement around a physical body

clam shell design

longitudinally split socket or shell

claudication (vascular)

pain in the lower limbs due to impaired blood supply associated with activity

clinic

facility providing outpatient public health services, including related services such as laboratories and treatment rooms.

clinician

a health professional who is directly involved with the care and treatment of patients

closure

mechanism used to close

clot (blood)

gelatinous mass of coagulated blood

club foot

congenital (or acquired) deformity of the foot, ankle and distal tibia; talipes equino varus

CNC

Computer Numeric Controlled design and manufacturing

CNS

central nervous system (brain)

CO

cervical orthosis, orthosis for neck immobilization

CO - CP - CPO

Certified ... Orthotist..Prosthetist..Prosthetist/Orthotist (ISPO Category 1)

coating

surface cover (as plastic coating of metal surfaces)

coccyx

anatomy: the ?tailbone?, a bone fusion at the lower end of the spine

coefficient of friction

number determining forces between sliding surfaces

cognitive

referring to the thought process

collar

orthosis that encompasses the whole or part of the cervical region including the atlanto occipital joint

collateral ligament

ligaments bridging the side of joints

colonization

presence of bacteria not causing infection

community rehabilitation service

any community-based rehabilitation service, possibly linked to other care services

comorbidity

relative incidence of disease indicating the coexistence of two or more disease processes

compatible (components)

capable of being used together

compliance (patient)

adherence to prescribed therapy

component(s)

part(s) of a whole; construction parts; pre-fab parts

composite material

made of different materials

compound

result of a chemical binding process

compression hose

garment to treat varicosities and/or oedema

compression therapy

application of elastic material around a body part to reduce or prevent oedema

concave, concavity

inwardly curved, hollow (opposite of convex)

condyle

cartilage covered rounded end of bone forming a joint surface

congenital

present at birth

conical stump

a stump being larger in the proximal circumference than in the distal circumference

connective tissue

supports, binds, or separates more specialized tissues and organs of the body

consecutive

following a sequence

constant friction

continuous application of a braking force

consultant

a person providing professional advice

contact cushion

distal contact padding in prosthetic socket

contact measuring

measuring while touching the object measured

contact pad

contact cushion (prosthetics)

contamination

pollution with unwanted substances, also microorganisms

continuous passive motion (CPM)

continuously moving an unloaded joint using a motorized device

contour drawing

draft of the outer perimeter of a body

contour, the (noun)

outer perimeter of a body

contour, to (verb)

creating a shape by forming, bending

contouring

providing a shape or contour to sidebars, to reinforcing bands etc.

contraction (muscle)

activity of a muscle (may be shortening, isometric or lengthening)

contracture

pathological limitation of motion of joints

contralateral

affecting or pertaining to the opposite side, opposite of ipsilateral

control (medical)

process of comparing conditions against a standard or a set of target values

control loop

technical means of continuously controlling a process including feedback for resetting to the desired values

convalescence

gradual healing (through rest) after sickness or injury, the period of recovery

convex, convexity

outwardly curved or bulged (opposite of concave)

cooperation

act of working together for mutual goals

COPD

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: condition comprised primarily of chronic bronchitis and emphysema

copy, transfer

bringing, copying etc. something from A to B

copy, transfer device

device supporting (alignment) transfer from trial O&P device to definitive device

copy+A394 or transfer device

device supporting (alignment) transfer from trial O&P device to definitive one

cork

bark of a tree, natural cellular light weight material

coronal plane

reference plane dividing the body into ventral and dorsal parts; perpendicular to sagittal and transverse planes (frontal plane)

coronary arteries

arteries that deliver oxygenated blood to the heart itself

correction

act of restoring towards normal

correlate

establish relationships between variables

correlation

measure of how strongly variables are pertaining, or change, with each other

corrosion

deterioration of materials by chemical influences such as oxidation

corset

circumferential shell; interface component of prostheses/orthoses:type of fabric spinal orthosis

cosmetic components (of orthoses)

components of orthoses that provide shape, colour and texture; they include fillers andcovers or sleeves

cosmetic components (of prostheses)

components of prostheses which simulate the appearance and feel of the normal limb: they include cosmetic fillers and shells and prosthetic skins and stockings

cosmetic cover

cosmetic component of a prosthesis, shaped and coloured to resemble the natural limb

countersink, to

taking the edge off a drilled hole, creating circular concavity

coupler

a connective device

cover

top layer that serves to conceal or shelter underlying structures

covert

secret or hidden; not openly practiced or shown

coxitis/coxarthritis

inflammation of the hip joint

CPM, continuous passive motion

continuously moving an unloaded joint using a motorized device

CPO

Certified Prosthetist / Orthotist (ISPO Category I)

craft & trade

European (German) vocational structuring system

cranial

relating to the skull; towards the head

crepitation, crepitus

the crackling sound that can be felt/heard from fracturedbony ends; arthritic joints or from tissues affected with gas gangrene.

crossline filing

using a handheld file in a 90 degrees offset direction

cruciate ligaments

intra-articular ligaments of the knee

crutch

walking aid that may provide forearm or axillary support

CRW

Community based Rehabilitation Worker (WHO Geneva)

CT, computer tomography

method to take radiographs in sequential slices

CTLSO

Cervico-Thoraco-Lumbo-Sacral Orthosis; orthosis that encompasses the whole or part of the cervical, the thoracic, the lumbar and the sacro-iliac regions including the atlanto-occipital joint

CTO

Cervico-Thoraco Orthosis; orthosis that encompasses the whole or part of the cervical and the thoracic regions including the atlanto-occipital joint

cuff

interface component of an orthosis - a narrow flexible wholly or partially circumferential shell that encompasses a body segment, or part thereof

cup, connection cup

socket connector in prosthetics

cure, the (noun - med.)

healing; desired result of therapy

cure, to (verb - med.)

medical therapeutic measure

cure, to (verb - techn.)

to set, harden

curvature

degree of curving of a line or surface; a mathematically describable property

cushion

upholstered device, providing a soft surface

cushioning

act of applying or the result of having applied pads or cushioning materials

custom made

device that is designed and manufactured to meet functional requirements of the individual user from information such as moulds, models, measurements and images

cylindrical stump

stump being approximately equal in the proximal and distal circumferences

cyst

abnormal tissue sac containing liquid or semi-solid matter

D

debridement

wound care measure; removal of non-vital tissues and foreign material to prevent infection and permit healing

deceleration

the rate of decrease of velocity with respect to time

deceleration phase

sub-phase in the swing phase of gait

decree

decision or order of the Court, text in the law or regulation with law-like character

decubitus ulcer

ulcer caused by pressure/shear on skin over a bony prominence; pressure or bed sore

deficiency

state in which one or more bones of a limb are totally absent, partially absent, or hypoplastic

deficiency

shortcoming in health caused by a disease or impairment

deficit

shortfall or shortcoming

deflector plate

leaf spring design in prosthetic feet, energy return device

deformity

abnormal shape or structure that mayinfluence function; alignment of a skeletal segment or joint (may be abnormal, preventable, reducible or irreducible/fixed)

degeneration

biological wear and tear

dehydration

excessive loss of water from the body

Delrin

thermoplastic material, used as a flexible, energy returning keel

dementia

chronic degenerative loss of mental capacity; may involve progressive deterioration of cognitive capabilities, behavior, personality and motor function.

deposit

(biological or pathological) storage mechanism, sediment

dermatitis

inflammation of the skin

derotating orthosis

orthosis for derotation - one of the principles of scoliosis treatment

design

functional lay-out and planning to work from for a defined outcome; an arrangement of lines and shapes as a decoration

dessication

removal of water; the process of drying

device

instrument designed for a particular (functional) purpose; O&P: orthotic device / prosthetic device = orthosis / prosthesis

dexterity

skill in using the hands

diabetes mellitus

disease caused by insufficient insulin production or lack of responsiveness to insulin

diabetic gangrene

death of tissue caused by diabetes

diabetic ulcer

ulcer caused by pressure/shear on skin over a bony prominence in foot or lower leg in diabetes mellitus (related to loss of sensation)

diagnosis

searching and finding a cause and details of disease

diaphysis

shaft of a long bone

dimension

seize as measured

dimensional stability

keeping the dimensions

diplegia

abnormal muscle activity (hypertonicity) affecting both sides of body with lower limbs more affected than upper limbs: as in cerebral palsy

direct socket technique

manufacture of a prosthetic socket directly on the amputee's limb

directive

formal guidance, instructions, or orders issued by an organization

disability

umbrella term for impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions

disabled person

person with a disability, handicap, see: disability

disarticulation

amputation directly through a joint

disc

flat circular plate; sometimes short for intervertebral disc

disease

impairment of health or physiological functioning together with disorders, injuries forming health conditions

dislocation

total displacement of the joint surfaces relativeto each other

distal

furthest away from the trunk; away from the trunk

DITI, Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging

imaging technique for measuring and displaying body temperature in various body segments. Thermography may be used to track the skin temperature (blood supply of the skin).

doff

take off

doffing a prosthesis

taking off a prosthesis

dominant

leading, controlling

don

put on

donning a prosthesis

putting on a prosthesis

donning aid

aid to don a prosthesis as pull sock, stockinet, parachute silk, silk tie etc.

doppler ultrasonography

ultrasound transducer/receiver:The sound wave reflected by the blood flow pulse wave allows qualitative evaluation of blood flow through the artery.

dorsal

pertaining to the dorsum = back, posteriorly located

dorsiflexion

movement of the foot towards the shin (at the ankle joint);extension

double blind study

method of medical investigation in which neither the subject nor the investigator knows what treatment, if any, the subject is receiving. Improves objectivity of the result.

draft

first drawing of a new idea, sketch or design with a preliminary character

drainage

system designed to remove liquids from a structure

drawer effect

anterior-posterior instability of the knee caused by slack cruciates

dressing

wound covering

drill bit

spiraled cutting tool to drill holes with

drill, to (verb)

to machine a hole

dry gangrene

dry black devitalized tissue

DS(L)T

Direct Socket (Lamination) Technique

Duchenne's disease

disease causing severe progressive muscular deterioration

Duchenne's sign

trunk bends lateral toward stance leg during stance phase

Dupuytren?s contracture

thickening and fibrosis of the palmar fascia leading to flexion contracture of fingers

durometer

indicator for hardness, stiffness

duroplastic resin

synthetic resin, not thermoplastic after initial curing

dynamic alignment

process whereby the alignment of the prosthesis or orthosis optimized by using observations of the movement pattern of the patient

dynamic alignment heel wedge

heel bumper in prosthetic foot determining heel stiffness

dynamics

science of forces on bodies (with and without motion) including kinetics, kinematics and statics, collectively

dystrophy

pathologic loss of muscle mass

dysvascular

pertaining to decreased blood flow

E

EC

European Community

eczema

inflammatory condition of the skin

ED

Elbow Disarticulation - amputation of the upper limb at the elbow joint

edema, oedema

swelling, extracellular collection of fluids in the soft tissue

effective

producing or capable of producing an intended result

efficient

being effective without wasting significant time or effort or expense

elastic

property of a material that deforms under load and completely recovers its shape after removal of the load

elastic anklet

type of fabric ankle-foot orthosis

elastic bandage

stretchable, expandable bandage for joint support

elastic knee sleeve

knee supporting soft orthosis, tt-prosthetic suspension

elbow

hinge joint between the forearm and upper arm

elbow disarticulation

amputation of the upper limb at the elbow joint

elbow units

prosthetic functional component designed to substitute for some of the functions of the normal elbow joint by means of controlled motions

elderly amputee

geriatric amputee

electric

pertaining to electricity

electrical stimulation

neuromuscular stimulation by electric impulses

electricity

physical phenomenon associated with moving electrons

electromyography

recording of electrical activity of a muscle

elevate

raise to a higher position

elevation

elevated (higher) position

embedding

enclosing, encapsulating, (German: socket retainer function)

embossing

manual shaping of sheet metal by special hammer

EMG

electromyography, the recording of electrical activity of a muscle

end cushion

pad-like construction, used in prosthetic sockets to improve end-contact and end-bearing of stumps

end pad

distal contact padding in prosthetic socket

endo-skeletal

type of prosthetic construction where the structural components are normally covered by cosmetic components

endoskeletal prosthesis

prosthesis in which the structural components are covered by cosmetic components

energy

source for work

energy consumption

use of energy in physical activities

energy efficiency

rate for efficiency or ratio between output energy and input energy

energy expenditure

amount of energy consumed in physical activities

energy return

quantity of energy stored by a material deformed under load, which is released when it returns to its initial shape

energy return - sample

energy returning prosthetic foot

EO

elbow orthosis - orthosis that encompasses the elbow joint

epicondylitis

inflammation of the origin of a ligament(s) or tendon at the epicondyle (e.g. tennis elbow)

epidermis

outer layer of the skin

epiphysis

distal/proximal ends of a bone separated during childhood from the shaft of the bone by growth cartilage or physis

equilibrium

condition in which the sums of the forces and moments acting upon a body are equal to zero

equinovalgus foot deformity

congenital or acquired foot deformity presenting with valgus and plantar flexion

equinovarus foot deformity

congenital or acquired foot deformity presenting with varus and plantar flexion

Ertl's bony bridge

surgical bone fusion between tibia and fibula using osteomyoplasty

eschar

hard thick scab covering a wound

et al.

latin for "and others"

etiology, aetiology

causes or origin of a disease

evaluation

to form an opinion of the amount, value or quality of something after analysis of collected information

eversion

rotation of the foot about an antero-posterior axis away from the midline

evidence

the proof of?

EWHO

orthosis that encompasses the elbow and the wrist joints and the hand

examination

physical investigation and evaluation of functional health condition of an individual

exo-skeletal

type of prosthetic construction in which the structural components are located peripherally and also constitute the shape of the prosthesis

extension

stretching or straightening a flexed limb stretching, straightening, making longer

extension assist

strap, spring, or other means assisting joint extension

extension moment

force (torque) causing extension (straightening) of joints

extension stop

bumper or other means of extension limitation

extensor

muscle causing extension

external

pertaining to the outside (opposite: internal)

external (side) joints

external side joints (of prostheses) are designed to constrain unwanted motion of the human joint(s):they include hip, knee and ankle joints

external fixation

outside orthotic fixation (of a fracture or a surgical result)

extremity

upper limb: that part of the body comprising the hand, the forearm, the upper arm, the shoulder girdle and the intermediate joints.

exudate

sum of all liquidized material that accumulates in a wound during infection

F

fabric corset

textile orthosis for the abdomen or trunk

fabricate

make or produce a product from various different materials or components

fabrication

the procedure of mechanically creating a device

fascia

sheet or band of fibrous tissue that covers, supports, and separates all muscles and muscle groups

fatality

resulting in death

fatigue (muscles)

decreased muscle efficiency with activity

fatigue (tech.)

reduction in strength of a material caused by repeated loading

Federal Trade Association

German professional trade association

feedback

return of information

felt

material made up from compressed, interwoven hair or fiber

female

the woman species in a creature (opposite: male)

femoral channel

dorso-lateral convex channel in a transfemoral prosthetic socket

femoral condyle

bulbous distal prominence of the femur (medial or lateral)

femur

bone that extends from the pelvis to the knee

FES

functional electrical stimulation

fetus, foetus

unborn offspring

fibre glass, fiber glass

glass fibre reinforcedcomposite

fibrin

protein that forms the fibrous network in coagulated blood

fibula

outer and smaller of the two bones that extend from the knee to the ankle

fibular head

the proximal end of the fibula

filament

a delicate fiber or thread

filler

cosmetic component of prostheses

FIM, Functional Independence Measurement

Functional Independence Measurement, a tool for rehabilitation outcome measurement

final level amputation

amputation at the last level on which healing has occurred

finishing

manufacturing processes performed after dynamic alignment in order to produce the prosthesis or orthosis in its final state

finishing (the edges)

providing a smooth trim line or brim

fit (P&O)

appropriate size and shape, for optimal comfort and function

fitting (P&O)

the process of achieving a fit

fixed flexion contracture

joint flexion position that cannot be altered passively

flab, flabby

soft fatty body tissue hanging loosely

flaccid paralysis

non-spastic (atonic) loss of voluntary muscle activity

flap (amputation surgery)

soft tissue stump closure

flare

bony surface whose shape opens outwards (as the tibial flare)

flat

without surface irregularities

flatfoot

foot deformity with a reduced height of longitudinal arch; pes planus

flexion

bending a joint (opposite of extension)

flexion assist (P&O)

mechanism assisting (joint) flexion

flexion contracture

loss of full extension of a joint with some remaining active joint flexion

flexion moment

mechanical effect causing bending of a joint

flexor

muscle creating a flexion moment

floor reaction orthosis

orthosis utilizing ground reaction forces to assist knee extension stability

FO (foot orthosis or finger orthosis)

orthosis that encompasses the whole or part of the foot;orthosis that encompasses the whole or part of a finger

foam

cellular resin (polyurethane foam hard or soft)

foam cover

cosmetic component of a prosthesis that provides the required shape of the prosthesis and in some instances simulates the feel of soft tissue

foaming

process of creating a foam connection between prosthetic components

foetus, fetus

unborn offspring

folliculitis

inflammation or infection of hair follicles

follow-up

monitoring of results or consequences of an intervention

foot

that part of the lower limb distal to the ankle joint (functionally developed for floor-contact and force and motion transfer in locomotion)

foot cradle

anatomically adapted plantar foot support

foot flat

the instant at which full foot contact with the ground occurs (coincides with the end of loading response subphase of the gait cycle)

foot slap

uncontrolled plantar flexion of the foot during loading response

force

that which tends to cause a change in the state of motion of a body (acceleration or deceleration): results in stress and strain in that body

forearm

upper limb between the elbow joint and wrist joint

forequarter amputation

amputation of the upper limb at the scapula-thoracic and the sternoclavicular joints.

forge, the

workshop where metal is reshaped by heating, hammering, and/or pressing

forge, to

reshaping metal by heating, hammering, and/or pressing

four prong adapter

Socket adapter for long residual limbs

fracture

break in a bone

fragilitas osseum

disorder characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, easily fractured bones

frame

rigid structure; basis for attachments

framed socket

flexible socket supported by a rigid outer structure

free flap

soft tissue transferred from its original location to cover a distant defect

freehand drawing

manually produced sketch or design

frequency

the number of occurrences or cycles within a given time period

friction

force resisting sliding motion

frontal plane

anatomical reference plane; as seen from the front: perpendicular to sagittal and transverse planes

fulcrum

a point or support on which a lever pivots

functional amputation level

amputation level at which the patient is best able to perform activities of daily living

functional component(s) (of prostheses)

components of prostheses that substitute for some of the dynamic and sensory attributes of the limb

functional level

degree of function a person achieves

functional level 0

USA and Germany: Amputee not foreseen for prosthetic management

functional level 1

USA and Germany: Amputee - indoor ambulator

functional level 1 prosthesis

prosthesis satisfying minimal basic needs of ambulation and ambulatory safety only

functional level 2

USA and Germany: Amputee -indoor and limited outdoor ambulator

functional level 3

USA and Germany: Amputee -unlimited outdoor ambulator - averagely active

functional level 3 TF-prosthesis

prosthesis satisfying most needs of mobility of the healthy, averagely active amputee

functional level 3-4 TT-prosthesis

prosthesis satisfying most needs of mobility of the healthy, higher active amputee

functional level 4

USA and Germany: Amputee -unlimited outdoor ambulator - highly active

functional needs

activities that an individual requires to perform to support their personal lifestyle

functional recovery

total or partial improvement of function

fundamental

of basic importance

G

gait

movement achieved using human limbs (walk, run, etc.)

gait analysis

measurement and interpretation of a walking pattern

gait deviation

departure from the normal walking patterns

gait pattern

walking characteristics

gait trainer

person providing education/instruction to an individual to improve their walking pattern

gait training

education/instruction to improve the walking pattern

galvanization

surface protection of a metal using an electrolytic process to apply a layer of another metal

gangrene

death of tissue due to loss of blood supply

gastrocnemeus

calf muscle acting across theknee and ankle joints

gauge

measuring instrument (measures width / thickness)

gear train joint

joint components, obligatorily interacting with each other trough geared connection

gel

non-compressible liquid material characterised by its negligible shear module

gender

sex; male or female

genu

latin for knee joint

genu recurvatum

hyper-extended knee joint (frequently seen in poliomyelitis)

genu varum

deformity in which the knees are abnormally separated; "bow legs"

genua valgum

deformity in which the knees ar abnormally close together; "knock knees"

geometric locking

locking systematic of polycentric knee joints

geometrical stance control

locking systematic for the provision of stance stability

geriatric

pertaining to old age

geriatric amputee

elderly amputee

geriatrician

specialist taking care of old aged individuals

gibbus

curve in the spine causing a bump or hump on the back

girth

circumferential measurement of a body segment

glue

adhesive material

goniometer

device used to measure joint angles

graft, autologous

tissue (usually skin) taken from one area of the body to cover a defect in another area

granulation

formation of a grain-like surface on wounds consisting of capillaries

grease

lubricant substance

grid

surface modification by abrasion

grind, to

particle size indication in abrasive materials

Gritti-Stokes amputation

amputation through the femoral condyles with placement of the patella over the cut ends of the condyles

ground reaction force

reaction by the ground to the force exerted by the foot at any time during the stance phase

guillotine amputation

transverse amputation of the limb through all tissues at the same level

H

haemo.., haema...

pertaining to the blood

hallux, halluces

great toe

halo brace

craniocervical orthosis with a ring (halo) attached to the skull with screws

hamstrings

tendons bordering the popliteat fossa laterally and medially

hand

that part of the upper limb distal to the wrist joint

hand splint

orthosis that encompasses whole or part of the hand

handicap

disadvantages experienced by the individual as a result of impairment and physical disabilities (WHO definition) insert more definition

hard and soft foaming

technique of using hard and soft PU-foams in combination

hard foam connector

foam connection between prosthetic components

HD

amputation of the lower limb at the hip joint

hd - heavy duty

designed to withstand above average normal loading conditions

HD-socket

pelvic socket of the hip disarticulation prosthesis

HDPE

High Density Polyethylene

head

that part of the body above the neck including the cranium and the face

heavy metal

group of metals with a specific gravity more than 5.0 Kg/M cubed (including lead and mercury)

heel clamp prosthesis

partial foot prosthesis, suspension by a posterior "clamp"

heel cup

foot orthosis, e.g.. Berkeley cup, Helfet cup

heel off / heel rise

instant when the heel leaves the ground at the end of mid-stance subphase of the gait cycle

heel spur

abnormal bony protrusion of the lower surface of the calcaneus

heel strike

instant when the foot makes contact with the ground

heel wedge

shoe adaptation designed to compensate for limb length abnormality/discrepancy

Helfet?s heel cup

foot orthosis, similar Berkeley cup

hematoma, haematoma

localized collection of blood in an organ, space or tissue

hemicorporectomy

amputation through the lumbar spine

hemipelvectomy

amputation of the whole lower limb together with all or part of the hemipelvis

hemiplegia

paralysis of one half side of the body

hemoglobin, haemoglobin

iron-protein component in the red blood cells that carries oxygen to body tissues

hemovac wound drain

a tubular postoperative suction wound drainage system

heredetary

genetically transmitted from parent to offspring

hernia

protrusion of body part through a defect or opening

hindfoot

posterior part of the foot (calcaneus and talus)

hindquarter amputation

amputation of the whole lower limb together with all or part of the hemipelvis

hinge

single axis joint

hip dysplasia

insufficient development of the acetabulum leading to subluxation or dislocation of the head of the femur

hip hiking

exaggerated upward movement (lifting) of the pelvis during the swing phase of gait

hip joint, articulatio coxae

ball and socket joint between the head of the femur and the acetabulum in the os coxae

hip positioning orthoses

hip orthosis designed to control the functional alignment of the hip joint

hip socket

concave component of the hip joint

hip spica

cast or wrap applied to pelvis and leg

hip unit

prosthetic hip units designed to substitute for some of the functions of the normal hip joint by controlling motion

hip-knee orthosis (HKO)

orthosis that encompasses the hip and knee joints

HKAFO

Hip-Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthosis: orthosis that encompasses thehip,knee andankle joints and the foot

HO

Hand Orthosis: orthosis that encompasses whole or part of the hand; Hip Orthosis: orthosis that encompasses the hip joint

hobby-handicraft

hobbyists work also meaning: non-professional result

home equipment (in rehab)

assistive products designed for the patient's domestic use

hook and eyelet closure

fastenings offabric corsets

hook and pile closure

closure material with interlocking surfaces

hook and pile, Velcro

self-adhesive strap material

hop, to

jumping on one leg as a mode of forward progression

horizontal plane

anatomical reference plane as seen from above; perpendicularto the sagittal and frontal planes

humeral additional flexion unit

prosthetic humeral additional flexion units are designed to improve the effective range of elbow flexion of the prostheses

humeral rotation unit

prosthetic humeral rotation units are designed to compensate for any restriction of the normal range of internal /external rotation of the shoulder joint

humerus

bone between the shoulder and elbow joints

hybrid

composed of elements of different origin

hydraulic joint control

method of controlling prosthetic joint motion using a hydraulic mechanism

hydrocolloid

a substance that forms a gel with water; occlusive hydrocolloid dressings keep the wound covered and moist

hydrocolloid dressing

substance that forms a gel with water; used as a dressing that keeps the wound moist

hygiene

science and practice of the preservation of health, especially cleanliness.

hyper-reflexia

exaggerated reflexes

hyper?

prefix: more than the norm

hyperextension

extended beyond the normal

hyperextension orthosis

spinal orthosis designed to increase extension ot the thoracic spine

hyperplasia

abnormal multiplication or increase in the number of normal cells in a tissue

hypertonia

excessive tone of skeletal muscle: increased resistance to passive stretching

hypertonicity

increased muscle tone or muscle tension

hypertrophy

overgrowth of an organ due to enlargement of its cells

hypo?

prefix: less than the norm

hypoplasia

biological structure significantly diminished in size; pertaining to a bone that is present significantly diminished in size, but not severely changed in shape

hypothesis

an assumption not proved by experiment or observation that is made for the sake of testing its soundness

hypotonia

diminished tone of skeletal muscle; diminished resistance to passive stretching

hypotonicity

loss of muscle tone (or tension)

I

IC

Ischial Containment

IC-socket

ischial containment socket

ICEROSS?

Silicone roll on liner of the Ossur corporation (inventor)

ICEX? pads

convex force transfer area for correction or retention

ICRC

International Committee of the Red Cross

idiopathic scoliosis

adolescent scoliosis ofunknown cause

iliac crests

proximal bony prominences of the iliac bones

ilium, os ilium

superior portion of the pelvis

imaging

techniques producing images from physical body segments or physical conditions (as x-ray, CT, ultrasound, infrared thermography etc)

immediate and early fitting

postoperative or early (within 1 week) provision of a prosthesis

immobilization

to prevent motion of a joint or segment

impaired

partial or complete loss of function

impairment

condition of being diminished in strength, quality, or utility; also: mentally or physically unfit

implant

device, material or tissue placed in the body

in situ

Latin: in its natural place

in vitro

in an artificial environment (opposite of in vivo)

in vivo

within the living organism(opposite in vitro)

incidence

the number of new cases of a condition occurring over a given period of time

independence

free from control or influence of others; in rehabilitation a "quality of life parameter"

infantile paralysis

poliomyelitis

infarction

area of tissue necrosis due to local ischaemia

infect

condition of contamination with pathogens or microorganisms

infected

potential condition after contamination with pathogens or microorganisms

infection

reaction to colonization with pathogenic bacteria; indicators: redness, swelling, pain

inflammation

localized protective response to infection or injurycharacterized by pain, swelling, redness and heat and limited function

infra?.

Latin,under or below

inguinal hernia

protrusion of intra-abdominal organ through the inguinal canal

inguinal truss

orthosis for inguinal hernia

initial swing

subphase of the gait cycle that starts when the foot leaves the ground and ends when the leg achieves maximum knee flexion

injury

trauma to a body part by an external force

inpatient

person who has been admitted to hospital or treatment center and stays overnight

insensate

lacking sensation

insole

type of foot orthosis

insoluble

does not dissolve in liquid

instability

tendency of a skeletal joint whose integrity is impaired to change to an abnormal alignment when subjected tomuscle forces and/or external loading

instruction

transfer of information, knowledge and/or skill

instruction for user (IFU)

printed user instruction

insufficiency

condition of being inadequate

integration

bringing together a number of parts to form a whole; in rehabilitation the act of bringing a disabled person into society

inter?

between

interface

contact surface between a body segment and an O&P device

interface components (of orthoses)

orthosis interface components in direct contact with the user that transmit forces between the orthosis and the user and may retain the orthosis in place (shells, pads, straps, foot orthoses and shoes)

interface components (of prostheses)

interface components of prostheses are in direct contact with the wearer: they are the means of achieving support, stabilization and suspension: they include the socket and suspensory components

interim prosthesis

temporary prosthesis intended to prepare the user for the supply of a definitive prosthesis

interosseus

between bones (e.g., interosseous membrane or ligament)

interphalangeal

between the phalanges of a digit (i.e., finger or toe)

intervertebral disc

fibrocartilaginous structure situated between two contiguous vertebrae

intestines

tubular digestive organs located in the abdomen

intra

within

invasive

in which a bodily orifice or the skin is penetrated

inversion (foot)

rotation of the foot about an antero-posterior axis towards the midline

IPOP

Immediate Post Operative Prosthesis

ipsilateral

pertaining to the same side: opposite of contralateral

IRC

Ischio-Ramal Containment: type of transfemoral socket

irreducible deformity; fixed deformity

deformity for which the application of an external force system has no effect on the abnormal alignment of a skeletal segment or joint

ischaemia, ischemia

lack of blood supply to tissue

ischemic pain

pain due to lack of blood supply to tissues (claudication)

ischial

pertaining to the ischium

ischial containment (socket)

IC: type of transfemoral socket

ischial ramus

inferior part ofischium

ischial seat / shelf / support

weight bearing area of a trans-femoral socket, located under the ischial tuberosity

ischial shelf

horizontal support at the dorso-proximal aspect of a tf-socket

ischial support brim

proximal weight bearing design in a TF-prosthesis or orthosis

ischial support socket

type of trans-femoral socket with weight bearing area located under the ischial tuberosity

ischial tuberosity

inferior prominence of the ischium

ischial weight bearing

weight transfer at the ischium (in a prosthetic socket)

ischial weight bearing socket

Quadrilateral socket design in variations

ischium

distal part of the pelvis

ISNY

Icelandic Swedish New York prosthetic socket design

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

iso?.

prefix; equal

isokinetic

with equal momentum

isometric

with equal length

isotonic

with equal tension

ISPO

International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics

J

Jaipur foot

prosthetic foot designed and manufactured in Jaipur/India

jig (P&O)

alignment transfer tool

joint

junction between two or more bones

K

KAFO

Knee-Ankle-Foot-Orthosis: orthosis that encompasses the knee and ankle joints and the foot

KD

amputation of the lower limb at the knee joint

KD-socket

socket for knee disarticulation prosthesis

keel

stiff inner component of prosthetic feet

keloid orthosis

compressive garment for treatment of burn scars

kinematics

study of the motion of bodies

kinetic response

the answer to kinetic impact, powerful "spring-like" impact response of O&P components

kinetic rotator

prosthetic functional component designed to allow transverse plane rotation thus reducing the torque transmitted to the stump

kinetics

study of the forces that produce or change themotion of bodies

knee disarticulation

amputation of the lower limb at the knee joint

knee joint

joint between the femur and the tibia, including the joint between thefemur and the patella

knee orthosis (KO)

orthosis that encompasses the knee joint

knee sleeve

prosthetic suspensory component used with trans-tibial prosthesis

knee units

prosthetic knee units are designed to substitute for some of the functions of the normal knee by means of controlled motions

knee-ankle-foot-orthosis (KAFO)

orthosis that encompasses the knee and ankle joints and the foot

Knight-Taylor brace

types of lumbo sacral orthosis

knit, to

process of making a textile fabric

knock knee

deformity in which the knees are abnormally close together; genu valgum

kyphosis

abnormally increased convexity of the spine

L

lace

cord for closing shoes, braces etc.

lacer

corset with a lace and hook or eye closure

laminate

composite formed from layers offibrous material embedded in a matrix of cured resin

landmark

a readily recognisable anatomical structure used as a point of reference

laser

"light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation"; source of light emitting a high-energy beam of light

laser goniometer

device for measuringjoint angles (goniometer) that uses a laser plumb line

laser level

device projecting horizontal laser lines as alignment reference guide

laser plumb

device projecting vertical laser lines as alignment reference guide

laser scanning

method of obtaining surface contours using laser light

lateral

away from the center

lathe

machine that shapes objects by holding and turning them against a fixed cutting tool

law

system of rules

leather

cured animal hide

leg length discrepancy

difference in the length of the lower limbs

leg-length compensation

orthotic compensation for a difference in lower limb length

Legg Calve Perthes

aseptic necrosis of the femoral head in children

leprosy

chronic infectious disease causedby Mycobacterium leprae (Hansen disease)

leukocytes

white blood cells

level

flat: horizontal

levels of technology

categorization of technology from "low" to "sophisticated"

lever arm

perpendicular distance between the line ofapplication of a force and its fulcrum

ligament

band of fibrous tissue connecting bones

light metal

metals with low atomic weight (typically lower than nickel)

light weight component

component designed with an emphasis on light weight

limb

arms or legs, extremities

limb salvage rate

the percentage of endangered limbs saved by surgery

liner

protective, often padded cover layer of a prosthesis, potentially also providing adhesive or low friction capabilities: designed to be used with a socket

liner - silicone, gel

conical padding and suspension device in prosthetics, often with distal locking system

link, linkage

movable bar connecting two parts of a structure

Lisfranc-amputation

partial foot amputation: disarticulation at the tarso-metatarsal joint

load bearing capacity (prosthetics)

ability of a residual limb (stump) to accept and transfer loads

loading response (O&P)

reaction of a component to (sudden) loading

lock

control mechanism of a prosthetic or orthotic functional component that fixes the component at a particular angle; activation of the mechanism may be manual or automatic

lock & shuttle

(mechanically activated/deactivated) system locking/suspending a liner inside a socket

locomotion

self-propelled movement ; e.g. walking or running

locomotion system

system of bones, joints, muscles serving locomotion

longitudinal

in lengthwise direction

longitudinal deficiency

aberration of the formation of parts of the long axis of the limb so that some bones may be partially or totally absent , while others situated more distally are present

longitudinally split

parted in longitudinal direction (e.g. prosthetic foot)

loose knee joint, m-l-instability

instability caused by lack of ligament control or joint wear

lordosis

anterior curvature of lumbar and cervical spine

low level technology

simplest and "lowest" solution to a given technical problem

lower arm

forearm, arm below the elbow joint

lower back

lumbo-sacral area of the back

lower extremity orthoses

orthosis applied to whole or part of the lower limb

lower leg

shank, leg below the knee joint

lower limb prosthesis

prosthesis used to replace whole or part of the lower limb

LSO

Lumbo-Sacral Orthosis: orthosis that encompasses the whole or part of the lumbar and sacro-iliac regions of the trunk

lubricant

grease-like agents reducing friction

lubricant

agent used to reduce friction

lumbar region

central part of the trunk, between the ribs and the pelvis, associated with the five lumbar vertebrae

lumbo-sacral orthosis (LSO)

spinal orthosis encompassing the lumbar and sacral regions of the trunk

lymphatic system

network of small vessels, valves, nodes and organs, that convey intercellular fluid back to the venous system: helps to protect and maintain the body's fluid environment by producing, filtering and conveying lymphatic fluid (lymph)

lymphatic tissue

tissue making up the lymphatic system

M

m-l (measurement)

measurement perpendicular to the long axis of a segment(s) in the coronal plane

m-l instability

instability in the coronal plane

machining

shaping a material by machine

magnet

metal device having the property to attract or repel iron or other magnetic material

magnetic

having the properties of a magnet

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

imaging technique using radio frequency within a magnetic field

magnetism

having the property of attracting or repelling iron or other magnetic material

magneto-rheologic

referring to a fluid containing particles withmagneticproperties

magneto-rheologic knee joint

prosthetic knee joint with a hydraulic control system whose properties are changed by the application of a magnetic field.

maimed

damaged in form or function by trauma

maintenance

taking regular care of an object

major amputation

amputation through the ankle or higher

male

the ?man? species in a creature (opposite: female)

malformation

deformity resulting from defective fetal development

malignant

tending to get progressively worse and to result in death

manual (adj.)

in relation to the hand

manual, the (noun)

printed matter regarding technical products; Book, telling how to install, do or operate, repair or maintain a product or system

marking punch

steel marking tool with a conical tip

mass

the quantity of matter of an object

mastectomy

surgical removal of female breast

maturation

process of mental, physical, or emotional development; in prosthetics: the process whereby the shape and condition of the tissues of the stump become stable.

mature

having gone through the process of maturation

MAUCH? joint

prosthetic hydraulic knee joint

MDD (Medical Device Directive)

EC regulation regarding medical products

measure, the (noun)

any maneuver made as part of progress toward a goal

measure, to (verb)

to determine the extent, size or quantity

measurement

extent, size , or quantityascertained by measuring

measuring

method of identifying important design criteria in O&P

measuring tool

tools to take measurements of objects with

mechanical stress

result of the application of a mechanical force to an object

mechanics

science dealing with the motion of bodies; divided into statics and dynamics

mechanics (bio-)

the application of mechanics to the body

medial

toward the mid-line

medical

pertaining to the science of medicine

Medical Device Directive (MDD)

EC-regulation regarding medical products

medical hosiery

medical compression stockings (phlebology)

medical staff

employees of the medical care professions

memory

a recollection; ability to remember

meningomyelocele

congenital herniation of the meninges and neurological structures

metabolic

pertaining to metabolism

metabolism

process whereby energy is made available for the use of tissues

metacarpals

long bones between the wrist and the fingers

metal band

the m-l connection between orthotic side bars (calf band etc.)

metatarsal

long bones between the tarsal bones and the toes

methodology

set of procedures and techniques used to perform a particular activity

microcellular

pertaining to the content of cells

mid level technology

appropriate and economic solution to a technical problem

mid stance

subphase of the stance phase of the gait cyclethat starts when the contralateral limb begins swing phase and ends when the heel leaves the ground

mid swing

subphase of the swing phase of the gait cycle that starts when the knee joint begins to extend and ends when the hip joint reaches maximum flexion; middle of the swing phase of human gait

mill

machine tool for shaping of material by chipping/cutting action

milling

shaping material by chipping/cutting action

MILWAUKEE brace

type of a spinal orthosis for scoliosis treatment

MINERVA brace

cervico-cranial orthosis

minor amputation

amputation below the ankle level (Enneroth et al 1996)

mobility

the ability to change body position or location

mobility aid

device enabling or assisting mobility

mobilization

the process of making a joint or a person mobile

model

three-dimensional shape: used as a basis for design of sockets, shells, cuffs, corsets etc.

model modification

process of changing a model from its anatomical shape to a functional biomechanical shape; also called model rectification

model rectification

process of changing a model from its anatomical shape to a functional biomechanical shape; also called model modification

modification

process of modifying the positive model obtained by filling a negative cast in order to obtain a shape that specifies the whole or part ofthe form of the final prosthesis or orthosis

modular (adj); module (n)

composed of several parts (modules) that are designed to be joined together

Modular III ?

carbonfibre energy storing/returning prosthetic foot allowing also for in/eversion

modular prosthesis

prosthesis assembled from modular components

module / modular

piece out of a group of interchangeable, compatible objects

mold (or mould), the (noun)

a negative impression of a shape used to produce a model; the process of producing a negative impression of a shape

mold, to (verb)

to shape an object

moment (of torque)

rotational effect of a force: calculated as the product of the magnitude of the force and its lever arm

mono?

prefix: single

monocentric

in which the axis of rotation is constant

monocentric joint

joint whose axis of rotation remains constant for all positions

monofilament

thread with one strand

morbidity

diseased condition or state:incidence or prevalence of a disease

mortality

the number of deaths in a given time

motion

movement, activity leading to a positional change

motion control

process of controlling the positionof a joint(s)

motivation

factors that activate behaviour towards satisfying needs or achieving goals

motor nerve

nerve transmittingimpulses tomuscle

motor-propelled

operated by (external) motor power

moulding leather, molding leather

leather, molded while wet, keeping shape after drying

MPT

mid (of) patella tendon

MRI

Magnetic Resonance Imaging: imaging technique using radio frequency within a magnetic field

MRT

application of MRI to produce multiple sequential images

MTP

medial tibial plateau

multi-axial

joint (or component) allowing motion in more than one plane

multi-flexible

flexible in various directions

multidisciplinary

tasks/activities involving more than one area of knowledge and/or experience

multiple sclerosis

central neurological disease affecting muscle control

muscle

contractile organ responsible for creating motion around the joints

muscular dystrophy

hereditary diseases resulting in progressive wasting of muscle (e.g. Duchenne, facio-scapular)

musculo-skeletal system

system of associated muscles and bones

mutilation

destruction of body tissues by trauma

myelomeningocele

congenital herniation of the meninges and neurological structures

myo-electricity

electric phenomenon in muscles (serving to contract muscle cells)

myo?

pertaining to a muscle

myocardial infarction

death of part of the heart muscle caused by an obstruction of a coronary artery

myocardium

heart muscle

myoelectric

pertaining to the electrical activity resulting frommuscle activity

myoelectric impulse

neural electric impulse stimulating muscle contraction

myography (EMG)

diagnostic method recording electrical muscle impulses

myoplasty (n); myoplastic (adj)

surgical attachment of muscle groups to one another in amputation

N

neck:cervical region

that part of the body that lies between the head and the trunk and includes the seven cervical vertebrae

necrosis

death of tissue

necrotic

being in the state of necrosis

needle

pointed sewing instrument, opposite end having a hole or eye for the sewing thread

negative cast

a negative impression of a shape used to produce a model

negative pressure

pressure lowerthan the surrounding pressure; (incorrectly referred to as vacuum)

neonatal

new born child (under 1 month of age)

nerve

biological structure for electric impulse transfer

nervous system

the system of brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves

neuro-muscular

pertaining to the innervation of muscles

neurologic

pertaining to nervous system

neurology

medical science specializing in the nervous system

neuroma

benign swelling of a nerve; in amputation, at the cut end of a nerve

neuropathic arthropathy

almost painless destruction of joints and soft tissues resulting from sensory neuropathy; most common in foot (Charcot foot)

neuropathy

pathological disorder of the peripheral nervous system; characteristic of diabetes mellitus and leprosy

new amputation

amputation of a limb upon which a previous amputation has been performed and healed (Larsson 1994)

night splint

orthosis used at night

non-contact measuring

measuring without touching the object measured

nonferrous metal

metals not containing iron

noninvasive

without penetrating the skin or a body orifice

nontraumatic

not resulting from or causing trauma

normal force

force acting perpendicular to a surface

nurse

professional taking care of patients in a hospital ward or in a community setting

nylon

plastic material

O

O & P

orthotics and prosthetics

occlusive arterial disease

disease causing obstruction of the arteries e.g. atherosclerosis

occlusive moist dressing

dressing that keeps a wound in a moist environment

occupation

activity performed to earn money

occupational therapist

therapist re-training patients under vocational aspects

occupational therapy

a therapeutic professional providing skills and techniques needed to perform activities of daily living

occupational therapy

therapy directed at restoring function using vocational and daily living tasks

oedema, edema

swelling; accumulation of fluids in the soft tissues

one-stage amputation

amputation done in one phase (final level, alternative: two-stage amputation)

open end socket

prosthetic socket with an open distal end

opponens position

grip between the thumb and a finger

ortho-prosthesis

hybrid between an orthosis and a prosthesis

orthopaedic (orthopedic) surgery

surgery specializing in the musculoskeletal system

orthopaedics

specialization in medicine dealing with locomotor system

orthosis, (orthoses)

externally applied device used to modify the structural and functional characteristics of the neuro muscular and skeletal systemsexternally applied device used to compensate for impairments of the neuromuscular and skeletal systems

orthotic (adj.)

pertaining to orthoses

orthotic band

(orthotic) interface component: a stiff narrow shell

orthotic components

components used in the construction of external orthoses. They include interface, articulating, structural and cosmetic components

orthotics

science and art involved in treating patients by the use of orthoses

orthotist

person, who having completed an approved course of education and training, is authorized by an appropriate national authority to design, measure and fit orthoses

osteo-myoplastic

surgical creation of a bone bridge with muscle attachmentin trans-tibial amputation

osteo?.

pertaining to bone

osteoarthritis

degenerative joint disease causing inflammation, swelling, pain and limitation of motion

osteoarthrosis

condition caused by wear that causes inflammation of the joint, swelling, pain, and limitation of free motion

osteochondritis

focal disease of the articular cartilage

osteochondrosis

degeneration of cartilage and bone

osteogenesis imperfecta

hereditary disease causing extreme brittleness of bones

osteomyelitis

infection ofbone and bone marrow

osteoplasty

restoration, repair, plastic surgery of bones

osteosclerosis

increased density of part or all of a bone

osteotomy

surgical cutting of bones

outcome

the result of a disorder or of its treatment

outpatient

patient who is being treated by but not admitted to hospital or treatment center

outpatient clinic

facility treating outpatients; clinic for patients not being admitted to stay

oximetry

measurement of blood oxygen saturation

oxygen

chemical element, part of the air we breathe

oxygen consumption

measurement of the use of oxygenin a person

P

pad

orthotic interface component that applies a localized force perpendicular to the surface of a body segment or at a joint and may require straps

pad, the (noun)

upholstered device, providing a soft surface; also convex shape

pad, to (verb)

reduce interface pressure using a soft compressible material

paediatrics (pediatrics)

medical specialty dealing with children

pain

unpleasant sensation following stimulation of specialized nerve endings

palpation

examination by touching with the hand

palsy

paralysis of a muscle or group of muscles

PAM, patient activity monitor

electronic device collecting a stride parameters during walking

parallel bars

stationary bars for initial gait training of the amputee or otherwise gait disabled individual

paralysis

loss of motor function

paraplegia

paralysis of the lower half of the body includingboth lower limbs

parapodium

orthotic device that maintains a paraplegic person in an erect posture and permits free standing

parchment

tough thin leather formerly used for circular reinforcement of wooden sockets

parchmentize

to apply protective cover molding around wooden sockets

paresis

partial or incomplete loss of motor function

part, partial

portion or division of a whole

partial foot amputation

amputation of the lower limb distal to the ankle joint

partial hand amputation

amputation of the upper limb distal to the wrist joint

passive motion

joint motion obtained by external means

patella

the kneecap, triangular bone in the anterior aspects of the knee joint

patellar-tendon

fibrous tissue structure between the patella and the tibial tubercle

patency

the condition of being open

patent (adj.)

quality of a bodily tube or passageway: open; affording free passage

patent, the (noun)

document granting an inventor sole rights to an invention

pathogen

causing disease

pathology

branch of medicine concerned with the study of diseases

patient

person needing or seeking medical advice and therapy

patient assessment

structured evaluation of a patient's condition to establish a diagnosis and to permit treatment planning

patient check-out

check of the fit, function and safety of a device prior to delivery

patient education

providing patients significant information about health pertaining matters

patient management (O&P)

any O&P measure leading to rehabilitation

patient training

instructing a patient in the use of their device

Pavlik harness

textile orthosis controlling the position of the hip joints of a child with developmental dysplasia of the hips

PE semi rigid dressing

removable shell applied over a wound dressing

PE-foam

plastic foam material

PE-lite

microcellular polyethylene foam, a padding material in O&P

PE, polyethylene

thermoplastic material

pediatrics (paediatrics)

medical specialty dealing with children

peg leg

lower limb prosthesis with no foot

pelvic

pertaining to the pelvis

pelvic bars

frame surrounding the pelvic crest

pelvic crest

lateral proximal bony landmarks (contours) of the pelvis

pelvic socket

prosthetic socket for hip disarticulation or pelvic amputations

pelvis

basis of the trunk, connecting element to the legs

perineum

crotch, groin

perineum trigonum femoral support brim

specific orthotic femoral weight bearing brim design (Perthes treatment)

peripheral vascular disease (PVD)

disease in the peripheral blood vessels, mostly arteries

peromelia

disease in the peripheral blood vessels, mostly arteries

perspective representation

3-dimensional technical drawing

perspex

plexi-glass

Persson amputation

surgical technique according to PERSSON: transtibial amputation building a medial and a lateral skin-muscle flap each

Perthes disease

aseptic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (Legg Calve Perthes)

pes adductus

forefoot inverted, adducted, pathological misalignment

pes planovalgus

flat foot, sunken medial arch of the foot, valgus deformity of heel

pes planus

flat foot, collapsed medial arch of the foot,

pes valgus

foot in valgus misalignment of calcaneus

phalanx / phalanges

small tubular bone(s) in fingers and toes

phantom pain

pain sensation in amputated segments of the former limb

phantom sensation

sensation in or of the amputated segment

phocomelia

congenital transversal defect of the limbs

physical therapist

therapeutic professional providing physical exercise and training for the treatment of motor disability

physician

professional with a license to practice medicine

physiology

science dealing with processes and functions of an organism

physiotherapist

therapeutic professional providing physical exercise and training for the treatment of motor disability

pig iron

not yet enhanced iron after first melting

Pirogoff amputation

hind foot amputation, capping the distal end with a segment of the calcaneus, thus providing endbearing capabilities; orthopedic surgeon (Russia)

pistoning

undesirable up-and-down motion of stump in prosthetic socket

plane (adj.)

having the shape of an even surface, flat surface

plane, the (noun)

even surface, flat surface

plane, to (verb)

providing an even surface

plantar

directed toward the ground

plantar flexion

downward movement of the foot at the ankle

Plastazote

microcellular polyethylene foam, a padding material in O&P

plaster cast

plaster made three-dimensional duplication of a body segment

plaster impression

plaster made three-dimensional wrap duplication of a body segment

plaster of Paris (p.o.p.)

calciumsulfat (CaSO4), model material in O&P

plastic coating

providing anti-corrosive surface protection for metals

plexus

network of interlacing nerves

plug fit

outdated fit of a prosthetic socket

plumb (adj.)

aligned vertical

plumb line

vertical reference line

plumb line device

device representing the reference planes (a-p and m-l)

pneumatic joint control

cylinder/piston device controlling prosthetic joint motion based on pneumatics

podiatrist (USA)

medical doctor specialized in foot care USA)

podiatry

medical science pertaining to the foot

point, the (noun)

1.: a dot; 2.: the sharpened end of a shaft (as point of a needle)

point, to (verb)

to show, to demonstrate by "pointing"

pointed

sharpened

poker spine

ankylosing spondylitis

poliomyelitis

paralysis caused by the polio virus infecting the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord

polishing wheel

rotary buffing tool

polyarthritis

inflammatory disease of cartilage and synovium of multiple joints

polycentric/ polycentric

axis of rotation changes with the angle

polyester

chemical resin (thermo-setting material) for lamination procedures

polyethylene (PE)

chemical resin (thermo-plastic material) for molding procedures

polypropylene (PP)

chemical resin (thermo-plastic material) for molding procedures

polyurethane

thermo-setting material, providing foamed materials if carbon dioxide is involved in the curing

positional rotator

device to allow positional rotation of a prosthetic socket

positive mold

three-dimensional cast made of a plaster impression

post-operative

after surgery

post?

after, behind

posterior

behind, toward the back of?

postero-lateral

position including posterior and lateral aspects of location

postero-medial

position including posterior and medial aspects of location

posture

attitude, carriage or position of the body

powered ...

operated by?.

PP

polypropylene, a thermoplastic resin

PPA, Prosthetic Profile of the Amputee

Prosthetic Profile of the Amputee, a tool for prosthetic rehabilitation outcome measurement

ppam

pneumatic post amputation mobility aid

pre-amputation

before the amputation

pre-fabricated

semi-finished product, made by industrial processes

pre-loading

loading (putting load or weight on) before...

pre-operatively

before surgery

pre-preg

fibers pre-impregnated with thermosetting resin to be finally cured by heating after forming

pre-shaping

shaping before?

pre-surgical

before the surgery

pre...

before (as in prenatal = before birth)

predict

to tell in advance (before the fact)

predicted rehablitation potential

to assume a certain potential for rehabilitation to a certain degree of function; prediction based on evaluation of indicators

prediction

to tell in advance (before the fact)

prefabricated orthosis

device that has been manufactured to meet particular functional requirements and is normally available in a range

prehension

act of seizing or grasping

prescription

written order for a medical service or device

pressure

force per unit of area

pressure differential (suction) suspension

socket with a closed end that resists removal due to a pressure differential

pressure garment

medical hosiery or garment for burn treatment

pressure sore

sores caused by constant pressure against human tissue (heels, coccyx after extended bedbound periods)

pressure ulcer

sores caused by constant pressure against human tissue (heels, coccyx after extended bedbound periods)

preventable deformity

deformity where the application of an external force will prevent an unstable skeletal segment or jointmoving into an abnormal alignment

previous

before

previously amputated

pertaining to a secondary or second amputation

primary amputation

first amputation

processing

further modification of an unfinished material/product

professional organisation

association following professional aspects and interests

progressive

advancing in extent or severity as "progressive muscle dystrophy"

progressive muscle dystrophy

advancing genetic muscle disease

pronation

rotation of hand or foot in long axis facing outwards or dorsally

prone

laying face downward

proprioception

sensation of spatial position or motion of a body part

propulsion

the force that drives something forward

propulsion rims

hand rims on the drive wheel of wheel chairs

prospective study

study following the researched cases in real time (opposite to retrospective studies, which are based on filed data)

prosthesis

externally applied device used to replace wholly, or in part, an absent or deficient limb segment

prosthetic (adj.)

pertaining to prostheses (adj.), NOT AN ARTIFICIAL LIMB !

prosthetic (orthotic) assessment

review of the overall condition of the patient by those involved in the treatment and the recommendation by the prosthetist (orthotist) of the components and clinical fitting procedures best suited to the circumstances of that patient

prosthetic (orthotic) casting and measurement

acquisition and recording of all information required to construct the prosthesis (orthosis) by means that may include the preparation of diagrams, tracing, measurements and negative casts of the body segments

prosthetic alignment

establishment of the position in space of the components of the prosthesis or orthosis relative to one another and to the patient

prosthetic brim

proximal part of a prosthetic socket, also a tool

prosthetic components

limb prostheses are integrated constructions comprising interface, functional, alignment, structural and cosmetic components

prosthetic design

externally applied device used to replace wholly, or in part, an absent or deficient limb segment

prosthetic device

artificial limb or other replacement of body segments

prosthetic fitting

any measure leading to desired fit of a prosthesis

prosthetic limb fitting

act of measuring, designing, trying on of an artificial limb (prosthesis)

prosthetics

science and art involved in treating patients by the use of prostheses

prosthetist

person who having completed an approved course of education and training, is authorized by an appropriate national authority to design , measure and fit prostheses

prosthetist/orthotist

person who having completed an approved course of education and training, is authorized by an appropriate national authority to design ,measure and fit prostheses and orthoses

protection

(device) measure providing protective qualities

protractor

tool for measuring and drawing the degrees in an angle; also tool for tracing circles

proximal

nearest to the trunk; towards the trunk

proximal support

principal support forces developed by the shaping of the proximal region of the socket

psyche

greek for "soul" or the "mind". In modern psychology, the psyche is taken to be an aggregate of the constituent parts that make up our "selves"

psycho?

terminological root pertaining to psyche. See psyche

psychological

adverb, pertaining to psychology

psychology

derived from two other words: psyche (meaning mind/soul) and logia (meaning study of). Psychology tries to explain why people act, think and feel the way they do.

psychosocial rehabilitation

rehabilitation of a person's psychological and social self; a holistic approach

psychosocial skills

skills pertaining to a person's psychological and social self and of integration in their personal and social surroundings

PT

Physical therapist; or patella tendon

PTB

patella tendon bearing

PTB prosthesis

prosthesis designed for weight bearing at the patella tendon

PTB-SC

see PTB; ?sc? indicates a supra-condylar suspension

PTB/SC (prosthesis)

PTB-supracondylar prosthesis

PU

chemical resin, providing various foamed materials

pulse

rhythmic contraction and expansion of the arteries caused by the blood wave after heart contraction

punch marking, centre punching

setting a point-shaped mark in a piece of metal

punch, the (noun)

tool used to make holes

punch, to (verb)

stamping a hole into a soft material

purulent

having or making pus

pus

acute inflammatory exudate composed of blood, serum, necrotic tissue, white blood cells and bacteria; a foul-smelling, milky yellow fluid

push off / toe off

moment in time the foot leaves the ground (final moment of stance phase)

PVD (peripheral vascular disease)

disease in the peripheral blood vessels, mostly arteries

pylon

tube used as inner, structural skeleton of a prosthesis

pyramid - threaded adapter male

threaded pyramid adapter for Ossur joints

pyramid connector

pyramid-shaped adapter for connection and angular adjustment

Q

QA.; quality assurance

planned and systematic actions to provide adequate evidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements of quality

QM; quality management

formal set of activities by corporations and organizations to control, correct and assure the quality of products and services provided

quadriceps

four headed muscle in the anterior thigh

quadrilateral

relating to "four"; quad often short for "quadrilateral"

quadrilateral socket design

rectangular socket design (proximal brim cross-section)

quadriplegia

paralysis of all four extremities

quality

features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implies needs

quality of life

refers to the overall status of contentness with a combination of factors as: independence, self-care,freedom of choice, health and level of physical functioning and social integration (and more)

quenching/hardening

process of improving metal quality (harder)

quilting/stitching

process of sewing

R

radial splint

lower arm orthosis against drop hand

radiology

science and practice of diagnostic and therapeutic application of radiation

radius (anat.)

one of the forearm bones

radius (tech.)

50 % of the diameter of a circle; a straight line between the centre of a circle and any point on its outer edge

raised toilet seat (aid)

aid for individuals with limited hip range of motion

ramus (ischial ramus)

projecting arch

random

lacking any definite plan or order or purpose; governed by or depending on chance

randomized study

research study where subjects are randomly assigned to their treatment groups; serves to improve objectivity

range of motion, R.O.M., r.o.m.

angular range of motion of a joint, as maxima between flexion/extension

rasp, the (noun)

tool for manual shaping of wooden and similar materials

rasp, to (verb)

shaping of wooden and similar materials with a rasp

rawhide

tough thin leather formerly used for circular reinforcement of wooden sockets

ray

metatarsal bone ,or a metacarpal bone , and its corresponding phalanges

re?

syllable indicating "a return to?"

reamputation

amputation of a limb that has undergone previous major amputation

receptacle

receiving device

reciprocal

representing opposites (right/forward = left/backward)

reciprocal ambulation

walking with continuous change between right and left leg

reciprocating gait orthosis

orthosis enabling a reciprocal gait (see above)

rectification

process of modifying the positive model, obtained by filling a negative cast, to obtain a shape that specifies the whole or part of the form of the final prosthesis or orthosis; general: correction of a mistake

reduction

deformity for which the application of an external force system will improve the alignment of an skeletal segment or joint

redundancy

presence of more than one identical item; repetition of a presentation with different words but identical content

reference line

defined guide-line used to assemble prostheses

reflex

unconsciously controlled, automatic neuromuscular action

regulation (admin.)

an authoritative rule having the force of law dealing with details or procedures for implementing governmental programs

rehabilitation

enabling persons with disabilities to reach and maintain their optimal sensory, intellectual, psychiatric and/or social functional levels

rehabilitation aid

devices to support rehabilitation

reinforcement band

orthotic interface component: a stiff narrow shell that encompasses a body segment or part thereof

relief area

area (in an O&P device) transferring reduced forces

removable rigid dressing

removable wound dressing consisting of a rigid outer shell, as a plastic shell or plastic socket

renal insufficiency

reduced capacity of the kidney to perform its function

replantation

re-connecting a limb lost by trauma

residual

that, what is left over

residual limb

left over limb, stump

residual limb maturation

the postoperative process of shrinking, shaping and toughening a stump as a preparation to accept a prosthetic socket

residuum

left over limb, stump

resin

chemical liquid or plastic material

resin composite

mix of resin and reinforcement structures

resin lamination

resin/fiber mix (composite)

respiratory system

physiological system for breathing (gas exchange)

resultant force

single force that replaces the action of two or more separate forces

retainer

receiving fixation component (as frame in frame socket)

retract, to

to pull out, pull back, to cancel something

retrospect, retrospection

act of looking back, looking into the past

retroversion

backward tilt of a body part: opposite of anteversion

revascularization

opening blocked blood vessels to improve blood flow

rheology

science of liquid flow

rheumatism

imprecise term for musculoskeletal aches and pains

rheumatoid arthritis

chronic inflammatory disease of joints

rib hump

protruding rotated aspect of rib cage due to scoliosis

rigid dressing

wound dressing with a rigid outer shell

rim

outer part of a wheel to which the tire is attached

rippling

effect of getting small waves, smoothing out

rivet

connecting device, connecting segments by heading/clinching

rocker bar

localized transverse shoe sole adaptation normally used to modify loading on the foot

rocker bottom sole

arc shaped shoe sole (or sole and heel) adaptation normally usedto modify loading on the foot and assist rollover

roll over

subphase of the stance phase of gait from mid-stance to toe off

rotation moment

effect of a rotational force acting along a lever arm

rotator

prosthetic functional component designed to reduce the torque by allowing rotation in the transverse plane; component designed to allow the segment of the prosthesis distal to the rotator to be positioned in the transverse plane (turntable)

rotator (anat.)

muscle providing for a rotational movement of a joint

rotator (tech.)

prosthetic device providing vertical rotation

roughen

act of roughing; act of making a surface less smooth

roughing

non-final, relatively rough planing cut of round bars on the lathe machine

router machine (mech.)

metal shaping machine (chipping action)

router machine (O&P)

long-arm O&P milling/sanding/buffing universal machine

RTPO

person who having completed an approved course of training , manufactures orthoses or prostheses under the direction of an orthotist or prosthetist

S

SACH foot (solid ankle cushion heel)

unjointed, prosthetic ankle-foot unit

sacroiliac

part of the trunk lying caudal to the lumbar vertebrae associated with the fused sacral vertebrae and their articulations with the os coxae

sacroiliac orthosis

orthosis that encompasses the whole or part of thesacro-iliac region of the trunk

sacrum

rigid base of the vertebral column; connected to the pelvis

safety rules

safety measures laid out in print

sagittal (transtibial) amputation

surgical technique according to Persson (1974): transtibial amputation building a medial and a lateral skin-muscle flap each

sagittal plane

anatomical reference plane; as seen from the side; perpendicular to frontal and transverse planes

sailor's gait

wide walking pattern (feet relatively far apart)

salvage, the (noun)

act of surgical ?rescuing?, reconstruction

salvage, to (verb)

to save a body part

sand, to (verb)

smoothing a surface with abrasive material of various grid

scab

hard crust consisting of dried serum and devitalised cells covering a wound

scapula

the flat triangular bone of the shoulder girdle

scapular abduction

moving the shoulder girdles forward (in an upper limb prosthetic control motion)

scar

visible aftermath of skin healing; fibrous tissue resulting from the healing of damaged tissue

Scarpa's triangle

anatomical region bounded by the inguinal ligament, sartorious muscle and the medial border of adductor longus muscle; also known as femoral triangle

scissors

small cutting instrument, as paper cutter

scoliometer

tool for measuring scoliotic angles

scoliosis

lateral deviation of the spine and rotation of the vertebrae around the long axis of the spine

screening

examination of large group, searching specific information

scrotal hernia truss

truss (retention orthosis) for the retention of a scrotal (male) hernia

seat support orthosis

device supporting an abnormal seated body alignment

seating (orthotics of ~)

design, manufacture and provision of custom seating

self-propelled (as wheel chair)

manually operated by (human) body power

selfcare

any measure of independent care; taking of one owns needs; in rehabilitation a parameter of quality of life

semi?.

half?.

sensation

awareness or feeling due to stimulation of one of the senses

sensor

device that measures a real-world condition and converts it into a signal that can be read by an observer or an instrument

sensory nerve

nerves responsible for carrying impulses from receptors to the central nervous system

SEO

Shoulder-Elbow Orthosis: orthosis that encompasses the shoulder and elbow joints

sepsis

presence of pathogenic organisms and/or their toxins in the blood or tissues

sequela(e)

after effect(s) of a disease, injury, procedure or treatment

set (adj.)

aligned, adjusted, "all done"

set, to (verb)

process of putting and confirming something into and in a position or switch-position

sever, to (verb)

to cut off

sew, to (verb)

connecting textiles or similar by needle and thread work

SEWHO

Shoulder Elbow Hand Wrist Hand Orthosis: orthosis that encompasses the shoulder, the elbow and the wrist joints and the hand

sewing, the (noun)

connecting textiles or similar by needle and thread work

SEWO

Shoulder Elbow Hand Wrist Orthosis: orthosis that encompasses the shoulder the elbow and the wrist joints

sex (gender)

differentiation between male and female

shank

lower limb segment between the knee and ankle joints

shaping

provision of desired dimensions to a model, workpiece, device etc.

shear force

force that is applied parallel (or tangential) to the surface of a body

shear strain

measure of the deformation of a body subject to a shear force

shear stress (noun)

measure of stress that occurs on a surface parallel to the line of application of an external force

shears

large cutting instrument, as metal shears

sheath

thin stump sock: to reduce shear stress

sheet metal

thin metal, large in the other two dimensions

shell

cosmetic component of prostheses; interface component of orthoses

shell design

exoskeletal prosthetic construction

shin component

TF-prosthetic component for application below the knee joint

shock absorber

device that absorbs kinetic energy

shoe insert

foot orthosis, arch support

shoulder

part of the body comprising the thoraco-scapular joint, the humero-scapular joint, and the upper arm

shoulder disarticulation

amputation of the upper limb at the shoulder joint

shoulder elevation

raising one shoulder (prosthetic control motion)

shoulder girdle

part of the body comprising the thoraco-scapular joint, acromio-clavicular joint, and associated bones

shoulder joint

joint between the glenoid cavity of the scapula and the head of the humerus

shoulder orthosis (SO)

orthosis that encompasses the shoulder joint

shoulder unit

prosthetic shoulder units designed to substitute for some of the functions of the normal shoulder joint by means of controlled motions

shrinkage

atrophy

shrinker

compression garment for residual limbs

shrinker

compression garment, sock or liner designed to reduce edema

shroud

technical, protective cover

shuttle

distal locking system in the socket, receiving the pin of prosthetic liners

side bar

orthotic structural component situated alongside an anatomical segment(s)

Silesian belt

pelvic strap for prosthetic suspension

silicone

thermo-setting chemical material with rubber-like mechanical properties, including low initial shear modulus

silicone liner

liner with suspension- or soft tissue replacement properties

silicone suspension sleeve

device supporting or providing TT-socket suspension

simplified technology

technology level below the standard technology level

single axis (or uniaxial) foot

prosthetic foot featuring plantar-dorsiflexion axis only

single axis joint

orthotic, prosthetic joints featuring one (transverse) axis only

SIO

Sacroiliac Orthosis: orthosis that encompasses the whole or part of the sacro-iliac region of the trunk

size

information on dimensions of a physical body

sizing

means of determining a (pre-fabricated) size by measuring

skeleton

functional structure of bones

skew

chamfered, slanted, also: misaligned

skew flap

skin flap slightly off-set from the sagittal or frontal plane, in transtibial amputation surgery

skill

well developed manual ability, skill of creating, craftsman skill

skin

cosmetic component of prostheses

skin care

any measure taking care of keeping the skin healthy and capable of prosthetic/orthotic application

slide adapter

modular adapter for m-l and a-p shifts

smooth

the opposite of rough

smoothing, finishing

providing a smooth surface

socket (anat.)

concave receptacle for ball joint

socket (O&P)

prosthetic interface component; prosthetic container for a residual limb or stump

socket (techn.)

receptacle for electric bulb or similar

socket design

art and science of functional shaping of a prosthetic socket

socket fit

functional result after designing a prosthetic socket

socket suspension

"adhesion" or fixation property of a socket to connect to a residual limb

socket trial

trying on, analyzing and rectifying problems of socket fit

soft orthosis

orthotic device made from fabric or elastic components

soft tissue roll

roll of soft tissues not easily fitting inside the prosthetic socket

solder, to

to fuse metal by soldering

soldering

method of joining metals using fusible alloys, usually tin and lead, having melting points under 371 ¯ C

soldering iron

tool for developing and applying heat while soldering

solid ankle foot orthosis

ankle foot orthosis without ankle joint provision

solidity, strength

capability to withstand deforming forces

soluble

having the capability of being dissolved

solvent

means or agent supporting the act ofbeing dissolved

sophisticated technology

very highly developed (new) technology, above the usual standard

spasm

sudden, uncontrollable muscle contraction

spasticity

the occurrence and frequent re-occurrence of spasms

specific gravity/weight

material weight per defined volume, as for e.g. 1 cubic centimeter

spina bifida

paralysis caused by congenital defect of the spinal column

spinal

referring to the spine (vertebral column)

spinal column

vertebral column, backbone

spinal cord

cord of nerves in the core of the spinal column

spinal cord injury

paralysis caused by trauma or disease disturbing the spinal cord

spinal orthosis

orthosis applied to all or part of the trunk, head and neck and their intermediate joints

spine

spinal column, pointed bony process

spiral orthosis

spiral orthosis according to LEHNEIS (ankle foot orthosis)

splay foot

foot deformity, flattening of anterior transverse arch

splint

old fashioned term for an immobilizing device for a limb; immobilizing orthosis

split toe?

version of a longitudinally separated carbonfibre prosthetic foot allowing for in/eversion

spondylitis

inflammation of the vertebrae

spondylolisthesis

sliding of vertebra with incomplete intervertebral arch

sprain, distorsion

sudden and violent twisting and wrenching of a joint

squatting

?heel sitting? position in maximum flexion of hips/knees

stabilisation

prosthetic interface attribute related to transmitting transverse forces between the prosthesis and the body, to maintain a consistent angular relationship between the prosthesis and the body

stability

quality of being firm and steadfast, also: the ability to withstand destructive forces

Stainless steel

steel alloy with nickel and chromium that is resistant to corrosion, used for P&O components that require enhanced strength with low cost

stance

act of standing

stance phase

phase of the gait cycle whilst leg is in ground contact

stance phase control

mechanism designed to control the stability of a prosthetic or orthotic knee unit

stance stability

ability of standing firm and with good balance, also: the ability to withstand disruptive forces successfully while in an upright position

standards

regulations agreed upon (such as provided by the ISO), that stipulate specific levels of performance, quality of goods and services, as well as procedures for manufacture, operation and control

static alignment

process whereby the bench alignment is refined while the prosthesis or orthosis is being worn by the stationary patient

static alignment control

determining correct bench alignment after prosthesis is donned

statics

science of mechanics, regarding forces in equilibrium

Steel

alloy of iron, with small amounts of carbon (see stainless steel)

step

walking period between foot-to-floor contact of one leg and foot-to-floor contact of the other leg

step counter

device counting a number of steps over time or distance covered

stimulation

the act of arousing an organism to action

stirrup

u-shaped contour of distal-plantar orthotic sidebars

stitching

to fix with needle and thread

stitching

to sew manually

stoma

surgical-artificial, permanent opening in abdominal wall

strain

measure of deformation of a body when subject to an external load

strap

orthotic interface component that applies a localized force mainly perpendicular to a body segment or at a joint

stratification

layering, - separation of a study cohort into subgroups or strata according to specific characteristic

strength

the ability of a material to withstand strain and stress

strengthening

any act or exercise invigorating physically or mentally

stress

measure of the intensity of the internal forces (in a body) that result from an external load

stride

walking period between foot-to-floor contact of one leg and foot-to-floor contact of the same leg

stripe

finishing element of trim lines, brims of corsets

stroke

cerebro-vascular accident, blocked vessel leading to ischaemia

structural component

connects interface, functional, and alignment components and maintains prosthesis integrity (endosketetal or exoskeletal); connects orthosis articulating and interface components and maintains orthosis alignment (includes uprights and shells)

strut

orthotic structural component situated alongside an anatomical segment(s)

stump

residual limb, the part that remains after amputation

stump care

any measure taking care of keeping a residual limb healthy and capable of prosthetic application

stump compression sock

sock-like cover for the stump; reducing edema and shaping the stump postoperatively after recent amputation

stump end cushion

distal soft pad in a prosthetic socket

stump examination

pre-prosthetic functional stump diagnosis

stump maturation

the postoperative process of shrinking, shaping and toughening a stump as a preparation to accept a prosthetic socket

stump shrinker

sock-like cover for the stump; reducing edema and shaping the stump postoperatively after recent amputation

stump sock

sock-like cover for the stump, avoiding chafing inside a socket, enhancing comfort by wicking humidity and compensating for volume fluctuation of the residual limb

sub-standard

below the standards

sub...

under...., below.....

subcutaneous

refers to tissue layers below the epidermis of the skin

subcutaneous tissue

tissue layer right under the skin

subluxation

partial dislocation of a joint

suction

method to support prosthetic suspension

suction chamber

distal space in a prosthetic socket serving as (low-pressure) chamber (uncommon today!)

suction discoloration

a blue discoloration of the stump end caused by distal suction action within the socket

suction socket

prosthetic socket, suspension supported by vacuum

supination

rotation of hand or foot around long axis with palm forward or foot inward

supine

laying on the back or with face upward (opp. = prone)

support

attribute of interface components (of prostheses) that relate to the transmission of longitudinal (proximally directed) forces from the prosthesis to the body

supra condylar

above the condyles

surface finishing

surface protection by smoothing, polishing, coating

surgeon

physician who specializes in surgery

surgery

branch of medical science that treats disease or trauma by operative procedures (invasive, bloody)

surgical amputation level

site or level of amputation

suspension

attribute of prosthetic interface components concerned with the retention of the prosthesis on the body

suspension aid

deviceproviding socket suspension

suspensory componets (of prostheses)

components of prostheses that maintain the prosthesis relative to the body

suture

sewn stitches, closure of a wound by application of needle and thread

sway

side to side movement

swedish knee cage

knee orthosis for hyperextended knee joint

swing phase

phase of the gait cycle, whilst leg is not in ground contact

swing phase control

mechanism that influences prosthetic knee unit movement during the swing phase

swivel walker

orthosis allowing for walking by swivel-like action of COG

SYME, Syme's amputation

SYME, a Scottish surgeon; ankle disarticulation amputation of the lower limb at the ankle joint

synovia (synovium)

lining of joint capsule, bursae or tendons

synovial fluid

lubricating fluid in joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths

synthetic

man-made, produced artificially

synthetic material

man made materials as resins, plastics etc.

systemic disease

disease that affects the whole body instead of just one area

T

talo-crural joint

joint between foot and shank, components are: tibia, fibula and talus

talus

bone that articulates with the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint

tan

to cure skin for leather production

tap and die (nouns)

thread cutting tools (male and female)

tap, to (verb)

to cut a thread

taping

bandaging by means of self-adhesive wraps

technical

the property of means and tools in application of technology

technique

specific method or procedure of applying technology

technology

knowledge of the design and application of a wide spectrum ofmeans and devices to benefit humanity

template

any pre-shaped tool for facilitation of design

tendinitis

inflammation of a tendon

tendon

cord of fibrous tissue that connects a muscle with a bone, thus transmitting force and motion

tennis elbow

stress induced inflammation of ligament or tendon at elbow, (epicondylitis)

tenodesis

tendon to bone fixation

TENS

method of analgesia through electric impulses

tensile force

?pulling? force

tension banding (O&P)

muscular stabilization (trunk) keeping muscular balance

tension banding (surgery)

method of osteosynthesis using muscle power

terminal devices

prosthetic devices that substitute for some of the functions of the normal hand: they include prosthetic hands, split hooks, and specialized appliances

terminal swing

end of the swing phase

textile

fabric made

TF

trans-femoral, amputation through the thigh bone between the hip joint and the knee joint

TF-prosthesis

prosthesis after transfemoral amputation

TF-socket

prosthetic socket for transfemoral amputation

therapy

any means of treatment with the goal of healing

thermo-molded

molded or shaped under the application of heat

thermography

technique for measuring and displaying body temperature in body segments. Useable to compare skin blood flow. See also DITI

thermoplast

plastic material re-shapeable under heat application

thermoplastic

heat shapeable plastic material property

thermoscan- see thermography

see: thermography

thermosetting

curing under heat dissipation

thermosetting plastic

after curing non-reshapeable plastic material (injected in molds while heated)

thigh corset

cuff with (metal-) sidebars, TT-prosthetic suspension

Thomas test

method of assessing hip flexion contracture

thoracic

pertaining to the thorax (trunk, rib cage)

thorax

middle region of the body between the head and the abdomen

thorax, thoracic region

part of the trunk between the neck and the diaphragm, associated with the twelve thoracic vertebrae

thread

helical cut (screw) cut in a bolt / nut

threading, thread cutting

apply screw cut to bolt / nut

three prong adapter

Socket adapter for long residual limbs

thrombosis

formation of a clot in the blood that either blocks, or partially blocks a blood vessel

tibia

shin bone

tibial condyle

proximal end of the tibia

tibial crest

anterior edge of the tibia

tibial progression

the forward movement of the tibia from heel contact to toe off

tissue

any functional conglomerate of biological cells

tissue

any functional conglomerate of threads or material cells

tissue breakdown

trauma of tissue pertaining to external influences (as: overload, chafing, friction)

titanium

non-ferrous light-weight metal with excellent corrosion resistance, inertness, and mechanical properties, notably fatigue tolerance. Alloying may enhance specific properties, like strength, sometimes at cost (reduced inertness, etc.)

TKO? safety knee

knee joint that controls stance flexion using body weight application

TLSO

Thoraco-Lumbo-Sacral Orthosis: orthosis that encompasses the whole or part of the thoracic, the lumbar and the sacro-iliac regions of the trunk

TLSO-frame type

Thoraco Lumbar Sacral Orthosis - frame type

TLSO-frame type (Hohmann)

Thoraco Lumbar Sacral Orthosis - frame type, Knight-Taylor brace

TO

Thoracic Orthosis: orthosis that encompasses whole or part of the thoracic region of the trunk

toe box

in a shoe: space provided for the toes

toe clearance

keeping the toes off the ground (in mid swing)

toe off

getting the toes off the ground (in terminal stance)

tomography (computerized)

computerized radiographic imaging in sequential layers

tone

basic tension of the relaxed muscle

tongue

flap under the lacing of a shoe or a corset

topical

medication applied to the surface of the skin

torch

device for applying heat while brazing

torque

effect of a rotational force acting along a lever arm (see moment)

torque absorber

prosthetic functional component designed to allow transverse plane motion, thus reducing the torque transmitted to the stump

total contact socket

socket providing equal surface contact all over

TOTAL shock ?

prosthetic device providing vertical rotation and shock absorption

total support

support forces are developed along the entire length of the socket rather than any specific proximal or distal location

total surface bearing (socket)

socket providing equal surface contact all over

TOTAL? Knee

polycentric joint controlling knee stance flexion by a geometric centrode

tourniquet (effect)

a circumferential constriction stopping or reducing blood flow (deliberately applied after trauma or during surgery)

toxic

being poisonous, demonstrating toxicity

toxicity

extent or degree to which a substance is poisonous

TQM; total quality management

continuous process for managing quality and improvements involving everyone and all activities in a company

trace

to draw, mark, transfer construction details to a workpiece

tracing, contour tracing

drawing of the outer contours

training and education

practice training linked with academic education (e.g. as relates to O&P education)

trans

through

trans-lumbar amputation

amputation through the lower part of the trunk; hemicorporectomy

trans-pelvic amputation

amputation of the whole lower limb together with all or part of the hemipelvis

trans-radial amputation

amputation of the upper limb between the the elbow joint and the wrist joint

trans-radial prosthesis

prosthesis for a person with an amputation between the elbow joint and the wrist joint

transcutaneous

through the skin

transducer

device that converts an input signal (force, pressure, movement, temperature, humidity, etc.) into another signal (electric, hydraulic, mechanical, etc.)

transfemoral

through the thigh bone

transfemoral amputation

amputation through the femur (thigh bone) between the hip joint and the knee joint

transfemoral prosthesis (AK)

prosthesis for transfemoral amputation - (AK)

transfer

moving from one surface to anotherwithout changing body position (e.g. from wheelchair to car/bed/chair)

transfer device

device supporting transfer from wheelchair to chair, bed, toilet

transferring oneself

moving from one surface to another, such as sliding along a bench or moving from a bed to a chair, without changing body position (WHO term)

transhumeral amputation

amputation through the humerus between the shoulder joint and the elbow joint

transhumeral prosthesis (AE)

amputation through the humerus - (AE)

transmetatarsal

through the mid-foot bones

transtibial (TT) prosthesis

prosthesis provided after transtibial amputation

transtibial amputation

amputation of the lower limb between the knee joint and the ankle joint

transversal (transtibial) amputation

transversal surgical technique according to Burgess: transtibial amputation building a long posterior flap

transverse deficiency

absence of limb or distal part of limb; deficiency in which all bones distal to a transverse plane are totally absent

transverse plane

any horizontal reference plane

trauma

physical injury or wound caused by an external force of violence that may cause death or permanent disability

traumatic

lesion caused by "accident" , see trauma

Trendelenburg's phenomena

limping due to weakness of hip abductors (e.g. underdeveloped acetabulum / hip-socket)

tri-axial

featuring three axes (typically 90 degrees toward each other)

triceps surae

three headed muscle in the calf

tricycle-type wheel chair

wheelchair with three wheels, front wheel manually powered

trim

to cut of excess material, to provide a smooth edge

triplegia

paralysis of one side of body plus one other extremity

trochanter

muscle insertion point, bony protrusion lateral-proximally at the femur

trunk

body excluding the head, the neck and the limbs

truss

retention orthosis for hernias

TT (transtibial) prosthesis

prosthesis provided after transtibial amputation

TT or tt

transtibial: amputation of the lower limb between the knee joint and the ankle joint

TT-socket

prosthetic socket for transtibial amputation

TT/TF ratio

number of amputations performed on TT level in relation to the number of amputations performed on TF level

tuberosity (as ischial tuberosity)

bony protrusion, muscle insertion/fixation point

tumor

tissue hypergrowth

two-stage amputation

amputation done in two phases ("wet gangrene amputation", alternative: one-stage amputation)

U

ulcer

necrotic defect in the surface of the skin that may penetrate to deeper tissues

ulceration

the process of ulcer formation

ultrasonic scanning

diagnostic tissue scanning method using ultrasound as information carrier

umbilical cord

tubular structure connecting the fetus to the placenta, supplying the fetus with oxygen and nutrients and removing waste

umbilical hernia

hernia of the umbilical scar

umbilical truss

truss (retention orthosis) for umbilical scar hernia

uneven arm swing

indicator of a gait asymmetry (gait deviation)

uneven heel rise

indicator of a gait asymmetry (gait deviation)

uneven step length

indicator of a gait asymmetry (gait deviation)

uneven timing

indicator of a gait asymmetry (gait deviation)

uni?.

one?, single?.

uniaxial

constructed with a single axis joint

unilateral

one-sided (opposite: bi-lateral)

universal joint

mechanical linkage of a shaft that allows rotation around its long axis but, more importantly, to flex the joint in two planes in right angles to each other

Unna paste

zinc paste; combination of 15% zinc oxide in a glycogelatine base after Paul Gerson UNNA, German dermatologist

upholster (to)

to pad, provide soft surface

upper extremity, upper limb

part of the body comprising the hand,forearm, upper arm, shoulder girdle, and the intermediate joints

upper limb orthosis

orthosis applied to whole or part of the upper limb

upper limb prosthesis

prosthesis used to replace the whole or part of the upper limb

upright

orthotic structural component alongside an anatomical segment(s)

upset

to compress (as in forging)

V

vacuum

absence of any matter, including air; a complete vacuum is impossible

vacuum molded

shaped or formed using vacuum as a support force in shaping

valgus

tilt/angulation away from the vertical midline

valve

device to control the flow of liquids or gasses

varicosis

disease of the veins (as seen in legs)

varieties

various kinds of?..

varnish

clear transparent lacquer

varus

deviation or tilt/angulation of a limb segment toward the midline of the body

varus foot deformity

congenital foot deformity, often: part of pes equino varus, club foot

vascular

pertaining to blood vessels (arteries, veins)

vascular surgery

specialized surgery in the management of diseases of the blood vessels, occlusive disease, bypass and transplantations of veins in particular

vaulting

pushing oneself upward by excessive plantar flexion, thus lifting the body; "walking on the tiptoes"

veins

blood vessels returning de-oxygenated blood to the heart

velocity

speed (vectorial consideration of speed)

venous leg ulcer

ulcer in the lower leg caused by venous insufficiency

vernier caliper/gauge

precision measuring instrument

verrucose hyperplasia

congested stump oedema due to poor socket fitcharacterized by the formation of hyperpigmented skin and lymphatic drainage

verrucose, verrucous

characterized by the formation ofoedematous hyperpigmented skin

viable

valuable in the sense of being useful and functional

video-metric

measuring by means of video filming

virus

an infectious, mostly pathogenic agent replicating itself within cells of its host

visco-elastic

displaying properties of liquids and of elastic springs

viscosity

measure of resistance to flow of a material

viscous

refers to a material that continuously deforms (or flows) when subject to external forces

vise

clamping device to hold work piece, while being worked on

visual impairment

conditions where people are blind, color blind, or have reduced vision capabilities

vocational

in relation to a vocation

vocational training & education

building a professional by pertaining training (as apprenticeship course)

volume fluctuation

swelling and shrinking

volume loss

process of postoperative shrinking of a residual limb; volume loss creates potential problems with socket fit

vulcanization

process of curing raw rubber in a heat process

vulcanized fibre

an early synthetic plastic material

W

walker

frame, with or without wheels, to support a person when walking

walking ability

walking, mobility, quality of life factor

walking ability index (WAI)

short distance walking ability test providing 6 categories from the unsuspicious walker to the non-ambulator (SIRIWARDENA, 1991)

walking aid

any device supporting the act of walking

walking distance

distance covered while walking, measured in units of length

walking frame

frame, with or without wheels, to support a patient when walking

walking performance

performance of walking measured in physical or physiological values

walking school

facility retraining disabled individuals to learn walking again

walking speed

speed achieved while walking, measured in distance over time

wart

non-cancerous skin growth caused by a virus

wastage of tissue

atrophy

weight

force exerted by any mass as a result of gravity

weight activated safety knee

knee joint that controls stance flexion by body weight application

weight bearing

act of accepting (and transferring) weight (in socket)

weight bearing (thigh) corset

corset including an ischial support for weight transfer

weight bearing orthosis

orthosis designed to reduce weight-pertaining force transfer to an extremity

wet gangrene

gangrene that appears with liquidizing tissue deterioration by reasons of bacterial infection with anaerobe microorganisms

wheel chair

mobility aid on wheels for transporting a disabled person in a seated position

whiplash injury

soft tissue injury of the neck caused by alternating rapid forceful flexion and extension

WHO

Wrist Hand Orthosis: orthosis that encompasses the wrist joint and hand

WHO

World Health Organization (headquarters in Geneva Switzerland)

window edema

swelling (of a residual limb) into a non-contact space

WO

Wrist Orthosis: orthosis that encompasses the wrist joint

wrap impression

negative (plaster) cast taken by wrapping (plaster) bandages

wrap molding

negative pressure supported thermoforming of thermoplastic sheet material in a wrapping approach (creating a seam)

wrist disarticulation

amputation of the upper limb at the wrist joint

wrist joint

joint between the distal end of the radius and the proximal row of the carpal bones

wrist units

prosthetic units that substitute for some of the functions of the normal wrist joint by means of controlled motions

wrist?hand-finger orthosis (WHFO)

orthosis that encompasses thewrist joint, the hand and one or more fingers

X

Xenon Xe 133

Xenon gas, Xe133 (radioactive), is used in medical imaging to study blood flow. By comparative scanning its tissue concentration may be tracked (indicating the related tissue blood flow)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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